Identification of rotating and vibrating tetrahedrons in the heavy nucleus 208Pb

Regular Article - Experimental Physics


Ten known states in the heavy nucleus 208Pb at \(2.6 < E_{x} < 7.9\) MeV are described by rotating and vibrating tetrahedrons. The \( 3^{-}\) and \( 4^{+}\) yrast states are the first members of the rotational band. A \( 2^{\pm}\) doublet state with the \( 2^{+}\) yrast state as one member and the newly recognized \( 2^{-}\) yrast state as the other member, the \( 1^{-}\) yrast state, and the third \( 0^{+}\) state are the heads of the three elementary tetrahedral rotating and vibrating bands. The newly recognized state at \( E_{x} = 4142\) keV was assigned spin 2 in 1975 and is suggested to have negative parity by the absent 208Pb \((\alpha, \alpha')\) excitation. Four more states at \(5.7< E_{x}< 7.9\) MeV are identified as the next members of the three elementary tetrahedral rotating and vibrating bands. The ambiguous spin assignment to the state at \(E_{x}= 7020\) keV is settled with \( 3^{-}\), the state at \( E_{x} = 7137\) keV is assigned \( 4^{-}\).


  1. 1.
    B.L. Cohen, S.W. Mosko, Phys. Rev. 106, 995 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B.L. Cohen, A.G. Rubin, Phys. Rev. 111, 1568 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.L. Cohen, A.G. Rubin, Phys. Rev. 113, 579 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.M. Lane, E.D. Pendlebury, Nucl. Phys. 15, 39 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.G. Rohozinski, Rep. Prog. Phys. 51, 541 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.J. Martin, Nucl. Data Sheets 108, 1583 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Saudinos, G. Vallois, O. Beer, M. Gendrot, P. Lopato, Phys. Lett. 22, 492 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.F. Ziegler, G.A. Peterson, Phys. Rev. 165, 1337 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W.T. Wagner, G.M. Crawley, G.R. Hammerstein, H. McManus, Phys. Rev. C 12, 757 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Fujita, T. Shimoda, H. Miyatake, N. Takahashi, M. Fujiwara, S. Morinobu, T. Yamagata, J. Takamatsu, A. Terakawa, H. Folger, Phys. Rev. C 45, 993 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    V. Gillet, A.M. Green, E.A. Sanderson, Nucl. Phys. 88, 321 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W.W. True, C.W. Ma, W.T. Pinkston, Phys. Rev. C 3, 2421 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    I. Hamamoto, Nucl. Phys. A 155, 362 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    I. Hamamoto, P. Siemens, Nucl. Phys. A 269, 199 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.A. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5300 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K.H. Maier, states in calculated with the M3Y interaction (2007)
  18. 18.
    R. Broda, R.V.F. Janssens, L.W. Iskra, J. Wrzesinski, B. Fornal, M.P. Carpenter, C.J. Chiara, N. Cieplicka-Oryńczak, C.R. Hoffman, F.G. Kondev, W. Królas, T. Lauritsen, Zs. Podolyak, D. Seweryniak, C.M. Shand, B. Szpak, W.B. Walters, S. Zhu, B.A. Brown, Phys. Rev. C 95, 064308 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Vallois, J. Saudinos, O. Beer, Phys. Lett. B 24, 512 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Hogenbirk, H.P. Blok, M.N. Harakeh, Nucl. Phys. A 524, 251 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.A. Wheeler, Phys. Rev. 52, 1083 (1937)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Tisza, Z. Phys. 82, 48 (1933)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    R. Bijker, F. Iachello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 152501 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Bijker, Phys. Scr. 91, 073005 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Bijker, F. Iachello, Nucl. Phys. A 957, 154 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Heusler, Rotating and vibrating $\alpha$-clusters in heavy nuclei, in 12th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure -- Current Problems and Prospects for Nuclear Structure. Ischia, Italy, 15-19 May 2017
  27. 27.
    A. Heusler, R.V. Jolos, T. Faestermann, R. Hertenberger, H.-F. Wirth, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 93, 054321 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Heusler, T. Faestermann, R. Hertenberger, H.-F. Wirth, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 89, 024322 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Heusler, G. Graw, R. Hertenberger, F. Riess, H.-F. Wirth, T. Faestermann, R. Krücken, J. Jolie, D. Mücher, N. Pietralla, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 74, 034303 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Heusler, G. Graw, R. Hertenberger, F. Riess, H.-F. Wirth, T. Faestermann, R. Krücken, Th. Behrens, V. Bildstein, K. Eppinger, C. Herlitzius, O. Lepyoshkina, M. Mahgoub, A. Parikh, S. Schwertel, K. Wimmer, N. Pietralla, V. Werner, J. Jolie, D. Mücher, C. Scholl, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 82, 014316 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Heusler, H.-J. Glöckner, E. Grosse, C.F. Moore, J. Solf, P. von Brentano, Eur. Phys. J. A 50, 92 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    H.-J. Glöckner, Master's Thesis, Universität Heidelberg (1972), edited by A. Heusler,
  33. 33.
    A. Heusler, Reconstructed data for , taken with semiconductor counters at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany) in 1968-1969, available at (directory /o/expt/polar/HsL/Blei208_HJG)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Grabmayr, G. Mairle, U. Schmidt-Rohr, G.P.A. Berg, J. Meissburger, P. von Rossen, J.L. Tain, Nucl. Phys. A 469, 285 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Grabmayr, private communication (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    U. Atzrott, PhD Thesis, Universität Tübingen (1995)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    B.D. Valnion, W. Oelmaier, D. Hofer, E. Zanotti-Müller, G. Graw, U. Atzrott, F. Hoyler, G. Staudt, Z. Phys. A 350, 11 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    U. Atzrott, private communication (2015)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Heusler, Original and processed data for , taken with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph, available at (directory /o/expt/polar/HsL/Blei208_Q3D)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P.B. Vold, J.O. Andreassen, J.R. Lien, A. Graue, E.R. Cosman, W. Dünnweber, D. Schmitt, F. Nüsslin, Nucl. Phys. A 215, 61 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Mairle, K. Schindler, P. Grabmayr, G.J. Wagner, U. Schmidt-Rohr, G.P.A. Berg, W. Hürlimann, S.A. Martin, J. Meissburger, J.G.H. Römer, B. Styczen, J.L. Tain, Phys. Lett. B 121, 307 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. Riess (2006),, Gamma-ray And particle SPectra interactive and automatic ANalysis
  43. 43.
    B.D. Valnion, PhD Thesis, Universität München (Herbert Utz Verlag, München, 1998)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    L.G. Elliott, R.L. Graham, J. Walker, J.L. Wolfson, Phys. Rev. 93, 356 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    L. Meitner, Z. Phys. 11, 35 (1922)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. Thibaud, J. Phys. Radium 3, 82 (1925)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. Rutherford, Philos. Mag. 47, 109 (1899)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Becker, W. Bothe, Z. Phys. 76, 421 (1932)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    M.B. Lewis, Nucl. Data Sheets 5, 243 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M.J. Martin, Nucl. Data Sheets 47, 797 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Schramm, K.H. Maier, M. Rejmund, L.D. Wood, N. Roy, A. Kuhnert, A. Aprahamian, J. Becker, M. Brinkman, D.J. Decman, E.A. Henry, R. Hoff, D. Manatt, L.G. Mann, R.A. Meyer, W. Stoeffl, G.L. Struble, T.-F. Wang, Phys. Rev. C 56, 1320 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. Heusler, P. von Brentano, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 75, 381 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Heusler, P. von Brentano, H.-J. Glöckner, E. Grosse, MPIK Heidelberg Annual Report (1969) p. 62Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    L. Muñoz, R.A. Molina, J.M.G. Gómez, A. Heusler, Phys. Rev. C 95, 014317 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. Dietz, A. Heusler, K.H. Maier, A. Richter, B.A. Brown, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 012501 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.H. Spear, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 42, 55 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C.M. Cheves, D.R. Tilley, H.R. Weller, Nucl. Phys. A 564, 1 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    R.H. Spear, W.J. Vermeer, M.T. Esat, J.A. Kuehner, A.M. Baxter, S. Hinds, Phys. Lett. B 128, 29 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. Heisenberg, J. Lichtenstadt, C.N. Papanicolas, J.S. McCarthy, Phys. Rev. C 25, 2292 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C.J. Halcrow, C. King, N.S. Manton, Phys. Rev. C 95, 031303 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. Heusler, T. Faestermann, R. Hertenberger, R. Krücken, H.-F. Wirth, P. von Brentano, Eur. Phys. J. A 46, 17 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Igo, P.D. Barnes, E.R. Flynn, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 66, 60 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Yeh, P.E. Garrett, C.A. McGrath, S.W. Yates, T. Belgya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1208 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    J.N. Orce, T. Kibédi, G.D. Dracoulis, R. Julin, S.W. Yates, J. Phys. G 31, S1705 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Bohr, in Nuclear Structure: Dubna Symposium (Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1968) p. 179Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    G.J. Igo, P.D. Barnes, E.R. Flynn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 470 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    R.V. Jolos, A. Heusler, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 92, 011302(R) (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. Heusler, T. Faestermann, R. Hertenberger, H.-F. Wirth, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. C 91, 044325 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    S.A.A. Zaidi, L.J. Parish, J.G. Kulleck, C.F. Moore, P. von Brentano, Phys. Rev. 165, 1312 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    N. Stein, C.A. Whitten, D.A. Bromley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 113 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    H.A. Bethe, R.F. Bacher, Rev. Mod. Phys. 8, 82 (1936)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    C. Xu, G. Röpke, P. Schuck, Z. Ren, Y. Funaki, H. Horiuchi, A. Tohsaki, T. Yamada, Bo Zhou, Phys. Rev. C 95, 061306 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    N. Marquardt, P. Rauser, P. von Brentano, J.P. Wurm, S.A.A. Zaidi, Nucl. Phys. A 177, 33 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    H.J. Körner, J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1457 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    J.M. Cavedon, B. Frois, D. Goutte, M. Huet, Ph. Leconte, X.H. Phan, S.K. Platchkov, C.N. Papanicolas, S.E. Williamson, W. Boeglin, I. Sick, J. Heisenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 195 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Krasznahorkay, H. Akimune, A.M. van den Berg, N. Blasi, S. Brandenburg, M. Csatlós, M. Fujiwara, J. Gulyás, M.N. Harakeh, M. Hunyadi, M. de Huu, Z. Máte, D. Sohler, S.Y. van der Werf, H.J. Wörtche, L. Zolnai, Nucl. Phys. A 731, 224 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    A. Tamii, I. Poltoratska, P. von Neumann-Cosel, Y. Fujita, T. Adachi, C.A. Bertulani, J. Carter, M. Dozono, H. Fujita, K. Fujita, K. Hatanaka, D. Ishikawa, M. Itoh, T. Kawabata, Y. Kalmykov, A.M. Krumbholz, E. Litvinova, H. Matsubara, K. Nakanishi, R. Neveling, H. Okamura, H.J. Ong, B. Özel-Tashenov, V.Yu. Ponomarev, A. Richter, B. Rubio, H. Sakaguchi, Y. Sakemi, Y. Sasamoto, Y. Shimbara, Y. Shimizu, F.D. Smit, T. Suzuki, Y. Tameshige, J. Wambach, R. Yamada, M. Yosoi, J. Zenihiro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 062502 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    D.J. Horen, J.A. Harvey, N.W. Hill, Phys. Rev. C 18, 722 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    H.P. Morsch, C. Sükösd, M. Rogge, P. Turek, H. Machner, C. Mayer-Böricke, Phys. Rev. C 22, 489 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© SIF, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 7/1HeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations