Advertisement

Intranuclear-Cascade model calculation of photofission probabilities for actinide nuclei

  • I. A. Pshenichnov
  • B. L. Berman
  • W. J. BriscoeEmail author
  • C. Cetina
  • G. Feldman
  • P. Heimberg
  • A. S. Iljinov
  • I. I. Strakovsky
Article

Abstract.

We have calculated the fission probabilities for 237Np, 233, 235, 238U, 232Th, and natPb following the absorption of photons with energies from 68 MeV to 3.77 GeV using the RELDIS Monte Carlo code. This code implements the cascade-evaporation-fission model of intermediate-energy photonuclear reactions. It includes multiparticle production in photoreactions on intranuclear nucleons, pre-equilibrium emission, and the statistical decay of excited residual nuclei via competition of evaporation, fission, and multifragmentation processes. The calculations show that in the GeV energy region the fission process is not solely responsible for the entire total photoabsorption cross-section, even for the actinides. The fission probabilities are 80-95% for 233U, 235U, and 237Np, 70-80% for 238U, and only 55-70% for 232Th. This is because certain residual nuclei that are created by deep photospallation at GeV photon energies have relatively low fission probabilities. The results of those model calculations are in reasonable agreement (at the ∼ 10% level) with recent experimental data on relative photofission cross-sections for 237Np and 233, 235, 238U (but not for 232Th or natPb) from the Saskatchewan and Jefferson Laboratories over a very wide range in photon energy. Using our calculated fission probabilities plus the total photoabsorption cross-sections per nucleon, estimated from previous cross-section data for nuclei from C to Pb, we can infer absolute photofission cross-sections for the actinide nuclei and compare them with the SAL and JLab results. The resulting discrepancies, however, clearly demonstrate the need for direct measurement of the total photoabsorption cross-sections for the heavy actinides.

PACS.

25.20.-x Photonuclear reactions 25.85.Jg Photofission 24.10.Lx Monte Carlo simulations (including hadron and parton cascades and string breaking models) 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J.C. Sanabria, B.L. Berman, C. Cetina, P.L. Cole, G. Feldman, N.R. Kolb, R.E. Pywell, J.M. Vogt, V.G. Nedorezov, A.S. Sudov, G.Ya. Kezerashvili, Phys. Rev. C 61, 034604 (2000).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.C. Sanabria, PhD Thesis, The George Washington University (1999).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Cetina, B.L. Berman, W.J. Briscoe, P.L. Cole, G. Feldman, P. Heimberg, L.Y. Murphy, S. Philips, J.C. Sanabria, Hall Crannell, A. Longhi, D.I. Sober, G.Ya. Kezerashvili, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5740 (2000).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Cetina, P. Heimberg, B.L. Berman, W.J. Briscoe, G. Feldman, L.Y. Murphy, Hall Crannell, A. Longhi, D.I. Sober, J.C. Sanabria, G.Ya. Kezerashvili, Phys. Rev. C 65, 044622 (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Ahrens, J. Arends, P. Bourgeois, P. Carlos, J.L. Fallou, N. Floss, P. Garganne, S. Huthmacher, U. Kneissl, G. Mank, B. Mecking, H. Ries, R. Stenz, A. Veyssière, Phys. Lett. B 146, 303 (1984).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Kazarnovsky, E.Ya. Paryev, Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1994).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.S. Iljinov, I.A. Pshenichnov, N. Bianchi, E. De Sanctis, V. Muccifora, M. Mirazita, P. Rossi, Nucl. Phys. A 616, 575 (1997).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V.S. Barashenkov, F.G. Gereghi, A.S. Iljinov, G.G. Jonsson, V.D. Toneev, Nucl. Phys. A 231, 462 (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Blann, B.L. Berman, T.T. Komoto, Phys. Rev. C 28, 2286 (1983).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.H. Heckman, P.J. Lindstrom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 56 (1976).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.L. Olson, B.L. Berman, D.E. Greiner, H.H. Heckman, P.J. Lindstrom, G.D. Westfall, H.J. Crawford, Phys. Rev. C 24, 1529 (1981).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    I.A. Pshenichnov, I.N. Mishustin, J.P. Bondorf, A.S. Botvina, A.S. Iljinov, Phys. Rev. C 57, 1920 (1998).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    I.A. Pshenichnov, I.N. Mishustin, J.P. Bondorf, A.S. Botvina, A.S. Iljinov, Phys. Rev. C 60, 044901 (1999).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    I.A. Pshenichnov, J.P. Bondorf, I.N. Mishustin, A. Ventura, S. Masetti, Phys. Rev. C 64, 024903 (2001).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Scheidenberger, I.A. Pshenichnov, T. Aumann, S. Datz, K. Summerer, J.P. Bondorf, D. Boutin, H. Geissel, P. Grafstrom, H. Knudsen, H.F. Krause, B. Lommel, S.P. Moller, G. Munzenberg, R.H. Schuch, E. Uggerhoj, U. Uggerhoj, C.R. Vane, A. Ventura, Z.Z. Vilakazi, H. Weick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 042301 (2002).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    N. Bohr, J.A. Wheeler, Phys. Rev. 56, 426 (1939).CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Bohr, Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, 1955, Vol. 2 (United Nations, New York, 1956) p. 151.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, B.L. Berman, R.A. Alvarez, P. Meyer, Phys. Rev. C 21, 1215 (1980).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, R.A. Alvarez, B.L. Berman, P. Meyer, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 73, 153 (1980).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B.L. Berman, J.T. Caldwell, E.J. Dowdy, S.S. Dietrich, P. Meyer, R.A. Alvarez, Phys. Rev. C 34, 2201 (1986).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Leprêtre, R. Bergère, P. Bourgeois, P. Carlos, J. Fagot, J.L. Fallou, P. Garganne, A. Veyssière, R. Gobel, H. Ries, U. Kneissl, G. Mank, H. Ströher, W. Wilke, D. Ryckbosch, J. Jury, Nucl. Phys. A 472, 533 (1987).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Frommhold, F. Steiper, W. Henkel, U. Kneissl, J. Ahrens, R. Beck, J. Peise, M. Schmitz, Phys. Lett. B 295, 28 (1992).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Frommhold, F. Steiper, W. Henkel, U. Kneissl, J. Ahrens, R. Beck, J. Peise, M. Schmitz, I. Anthony, J.D. Kellie, S.J. Hall, G.J. Miller, Z. Phys. A 350, 249 (1994).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Bianchi, E. De Sanctis, M. Mirazita, V. Muccifora, Phys. Rev. C 60, 064617 (1999).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. Muccifora, N. Bianchi, A. Deppman, E. De Sanctis, M. Mirazita, E. Polli, P. Rossi, R. Burgwinkel, J. Hannappel, F. Klein, D. Menze, W.J. Schwille, F. Wehnes, Phys. Rev. C 60, 064616 (1999).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.S. Iljinov, D.I. Ivanov, M.V. Mebel, V.G. Nedorezov, A.S. Sudov, G.Y. Kezerashvili, Nucl. Phys. A 539, 263 (1992).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.I. Ivanov, G.Y. Kezerashvili, A.I. L’vov, S.I. Mishnev, V.G. Nedorezov, I.Y. Protopopov, A.S. Sudov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 55, 1 (1992).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A.A. Kazakov, G.Ya. Kezerashvili, L.E. Lazareva, V.G. Nedorezov, A.N. Skrinsky, A.S. Sudov, G.M. Tumaikin, Yu.M. Shatunov, JETP Lett. 40, 1271 (1984).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A.S. Iljinov, E.A. Cherepanov, S.E. Chigrinov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 32, 166 (1980), (Yad. Fiz. 32, 322 (1980)).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Mebel, C. Guaraldo, V. Lucherini, E. De Sanctis, N. Bianchi, P. Levi Sandri, V. Muccifora, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, P. Rossi, S. Lo Nigro, Phys. Rev. C 39, 1420 (1989).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    C. Guaraldo, V. Lucherini, E. De Sanctis, A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Mebel, S. Lo Nigro, Nuovo Cimento A 103, 607 (1990).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.D.T. Arruda-Neto, A. Deppman, N. Bianchi, E. De Sanctis, Phys. Rev. C 51, 751 (1995).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P.P. Delsanto, A. Fubini, F. Murgia, P. Quarati, Z. Phys. A 342, 291 (1992).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Deppman, O.A.P. Tavares, S.B. Duarte, E.C. de Oliveira, J.D.T. Arruda-Neto, S.R. de Pina, V.P. Likhachev, O. Rodriguez, J. Mesa, M. Goncalves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 182701 (2001).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Deppman, O.A.P. Tavares, S.B. Duarte, J.D.T. Arruda-Neto, M. Goncalves, V.P. Likhachev, E.C. de Oliveira, Phys. Rev. C 66, 067601 (2002).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ye.S. Golubeva, A.S. Iljinov, I.A. Pshenichnov, Phys. At. Nucl. 57, 2007 (1994), (Yad. Fiz. 57, 2084 (1994)).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A.S. Botvina, A.S. Iljinov, I.N. Mishustin, Nucl. Phys. A 507, 649 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.P. Bondorf, A.S. Botvina, A.S. Iljinov, I.N. Mishustin, K. Sneppen, Phys. Rep. 257, 133 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K.K. Gudima, G.A. Ososkov, V.D. Toneev, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys., 21, 138 (1975), (Yad. Fiz. 21, 260 (1975)).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Leprêtre, H. Beil, R. Bergère, P. Carlos, J. Fagot, A. De Miniac, A. Veyssière, Nucl. Phys. A 390, 221 (1982).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.S. Levinger, Phys. Rev. 84, 43 (1951).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. Leprêtre, H. Beil, R. Bergère, P. Carlos, J. Fagot, A. De Miniac, A. Veyssière, Nucl. Phys. A 367, 237 (1981).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J.M. Laget, Nucl. Phys. A 312, 256 (1978).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Lott, F. Goldenbaum, A. Böhm, W. Bohne, T. von Egidy, P. Figuera, J. Galin, D. Hilscher, U. Jahnke, J. Jastrzebski, M. Morjean, G. Pausch, A. Péghaire, L. Pienkowski, D. Polster, S. Proschitzki, B. Quednau, H. Rossner, S. Schmid, W. Schmid, Phys. Rev. C 63, 034616 (2001).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    V. Weisskopf, Phys. Rev. 52, 295 (1937).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G.D. Adeev, A.S. Botvina, A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Mebel, N.I. Pichasov, O.I. Serdyuk, INR Preprint-816/93, Moscow, 1993.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.V. Ignatyuk, G.N. Smirenkin, A.S. Tishin, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 21, 255 (1975), (Yad. Fiz. 21, 485 (1975)).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.V. Ignatyuk, K.K. Istekov, G.N. Smirenkin, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 29, 450 (1979), (Yad. Fiz. 29, 875 (1979)).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Mebel, N. Bianchi, E. De Sanctis, C. Guaraldo, V. Lucherini, V. Muccifora, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, P. Rossi, Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, Ark. Fys. 36, 343 (1967).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.-J. Gaimard, K.H. Schmidt, Nucl. Phys. A 531, 709 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.B. Martins, E.L. Moreira, O.A.P. Tavares, J.L. Vieira, L. Casano, A. D’Angelo, C. Schaerf, M.L. Terranova, D. Babusci, B. Girolami, Phys. Rev. C 44, 354 (1991).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. Reisdorf, Z. Phys. A 300, 227 (1981).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. Töke, W.J. Swiatecki, Nucl. Phys. A 372, 141 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. Treiner, IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Basic and Applied Problems of Nuclear Level Densities, Upton, 1983, Report BNL-NCS-51694, p. 383.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 84, 186 (1974).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Heinz, K.-H. Schmidt, A.R. Junghans, P. Armbruster, J. Benlliure, C. Böckstiegel, H.-G. Clerc, A. Grewe, M. de Jong, J. Müller, M. Pfützner, S. Steinhäuser, B. Voss, Nucl. Phys. A 713, 3 (2003).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    W.J. Llope, P. Braun-Munzinger, Phys. Rev. C 41, 2644 (1990).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    B.L. Berman, S.C. Fultz, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 713 (1975).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S.S. Dietrich, B.L. Berman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 38, 199 (1988). Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    N. Bianchi, A. Deppman, E. De Sanctis, A. Fantoni, P. Levi Sandri, V. Lucherini, V. Muccifora, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, P. Rossi, A.S. Iljinov, M.V. Mebel, J.D.T. Arruda-Neto, M. Anghinolfi, P. Corvisiero, G. Gervino, L. Mazzaschi, V. Mokeev, G. Ricco, M. Ripani, M. Sanzone, M. Taiuti, A. Zucchiatti, R. Bergère, P. Carlos, P. Garganne, A. Leprêtre, Phys. Rev. C 48, 1785 (1993).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    V. Lucherini, C. Guaraldo, E. De Sanctis, P. Levi Sandri, E. Polli, A.R. Reolon, A.S. Iljinov, S. Lo Nigro, S. Aiello, V. Bellini, V. Emma, C. Milone, G.S. Pappalardo, M.V. Mebel, Phys. Rev. C 39, 911 (1989).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    B.L. Berman, R.E. Pywell, S.S. Dietrich, M.N. Thompson, K.G. McNeill, J.W. Jury, Phys. Rev. C 36, 1286 (1987).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    T.A. Armstrong, W.R. Hogg, G.M. Lewis, A.W. Robertson, G.R. Brookes, A.S. Clough, J.H. Freeland, W. Galbraith, A.F. King, W.R. Rawlinson, N.R.S. Tait, J.C. Thompson, D.W.L. Tolfree, Phys. Rev. D 5, 1640 (1972).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. MacCormick, G. Audit, N. D’Hose, L. Ghedira, V. Isbert, S. Kerhoas, L.Y. Murphy, G. Tamas, P.A. Wallace, S. Altieri, A. Braghieri, P. Pedroni, T. Pinelli, J. Ahrens, R. Beck, J.R.M. Annand, R.A. Crawford, J.D. Kellie, I.J.D. MacGregor, B. Dolbilkin, A. Zabrodin, Phys. Rev. C 53, 41 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T.A. Armstrong, W.R. Hogg, G.M. Lewis, A.W. Robertson, G.R. Brookes, A.S. Clough, J.H. Freeland, W. Galbraith, A.F. King, W.R. Rawlinson, N.R.S. Tait, J.C. Thompson, D.W.L. Tolfree, Nucl. Phys. B 41, 445 (1972).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. Engel, J. Ranft, S. Roesler, Phys. Rev. D 55, 6957 (1997).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    W. Weise, Phys. Rep. 13, 53 (1974).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    G.R. Brookes, A.S. Clough, J.H. Freeland, W. Galbraith, A.F. King, T.A. Armstrong, W.R. Hogg, G.M. Lewis, A.W. Robertson, W.R. Rawlinson, N.R.S. Tait, J.C. Thompson, D.W.L. Tolfree, Phys. Rev. D 8, 2826 (1973).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    V.S. Barashenkov, F.G. Gereghi, A.S. Iljinov, V.D. Toneev, Nucl. Phys. A 222, 204 (1974).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    G.S. Sauer, H. Chandra, U. Mosel, Nucl. Phys. A 264, 221 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. Sierk, S. Mashnik, LANL Report LA-UR-98-5998 (1998).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S. Michalowski, D. Andrews, J. Eickmeyer, T. Gentile, N. Mistry, R. Talman, K. Ueno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 737 (1977).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    P. Carlos, H. Beil, R. Bergère, B.L. Berman, A. Leprêtre, A. Veyssière, Nucl. Phys. A 378, 317 (1982).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. Veyssière, H. Beil, R. Bergère, P. Carlos, J. Fagot, A. Leprêtre, A. De Miniac, Z. Phys. A 306, 139 (1982).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    P. Carlos, H. Beil, R. Bergère, J. Fagot, A. Leprêtre, A. De Miniac, A. Veyssière, Nucl. Phys. A 431, 573 (1984).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    B.L. Berman, K.S. Dhuga, W.R. Dodge, B.G. Ritchie, Jefferson Lab Report, CLAS Note 92-010 (1992).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. A. Pshenichnov
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. L. Berman
    • 1
  • W. J. Briscoe
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Cetina
    • 1
  • G. Feldman
    • 1
  • P. Heimberg
    • 1
  • A. S. Iljinov
    • 2
  • I. I. Strakovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of PhysicsThe George Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Nuclear ResearchRussian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations