The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 224, Issue 13, pp 2557–2566 | Cite as

Collective synchronization and phase locking of fs fiber amplifiers: Requirements and potential solutions

  • L. Lombard
  • C. Bellanger
  • G. Canat
  • L. Mugnier
  • F. Cassaing
  • V. Michau
  • P. Bourdon
  • J. Primot
Review ICAN Science
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Science and Applications of the Coherent Amplifying Network (CAN) Laser

Abstract

Active coherent beam combination (CBC) of femtosecond pulses requires knowledge of the absolute phase between all the optical pulses: pulse synchronization and phase locking are both mandatory and must be measured and controlled. To assess controller requirements, we study fiber amplifier phase noise for various packaging and power levels. The main contributors are thermal noise (with large amplitude phase noise and frequencies below 5 Hz) and vibrations (with low amplitude phase noise and frequencies from 5 Hz to 2 kHz), leading to a woofer/tweeter pair of actuator. The amplifier packaging is of major importance: a simple PID model shows that in order to achieve a residual phase error of λ/100, the required controller bandwidth ranges from 0.5 Hz to 1 kHz, mostly depending on amplifier packaging. We also shortly review common phase locking techniques either based on pupil-plane sensor or focal-plane sensor. Common focal-plane techniques as SPGD or LOCSET are not directly compatible with pulsed femtosecond operation. Pupil-plane fringe-sensor techniques are more promising and route towards collective synchronization for femtosecond regime are proposed. Following the example of telescope interferometry, the final system might include both a pupil-plane, fringe-sensor and a focal-plane phase-diversity sensor, with pupil-plane sensor for synchronization and phase lock, and focal-plane sensor to control and maintain required focalized beam quality.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G. Mourou, B. Brocklesby, T. Tajima, J. Limpert, Nat. Photonics 7, 258 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Lombard, G. Canat, A. Durecu, P. Bourdon, Coherent Beam Combining Performance in Harsh Environment 8961, 896107 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.M. Shay, V. Benham, J.T. Baker, B. Ward, A.D. Sanchez, M.A. Culpepper, D. Pilkington, J. Spring, D.J. Nelson, C.A. Lu, Opt. Expr. 14, 12015 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Liu, M.A. Vorontsov, Target-in-the-Loop: Atmospheric Tracking, Imaging, and Compensation II 5895, 58950P (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Bellanger, B. Toulon, J. Primot, L. Lombard, J. Bourderionnet, A. Brignon, Opt. Lett. 35, 3931 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.X. Yu, J.E. Kansky, S.E.J. Shaw, D.V. Murphy, C. Higgs, Electron. Lett. 42, 1024 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Lombard, J.L. Gouët, P. Bourdon, G. Canat, Coherent Beam Combining of Pulsed Fiber Amplifiers in the Long-Pulse Regime (Nano- to Microseconds), in Coherent Laser Beam Combining, edited by A. Brignon (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013), p. 231Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.A. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 215829 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.M. Mugnier, A. Blanc, J. Idier, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 141, 3 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Védrenne, L.M. Mugnier, V. Michau, M.-T. Velluet, R. Bierent, Opt. Expr. 22, 4575 (2014)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. Denolle, F. Cassaing, J. Montri, J. Lisowski, J.P. Amans, Real-time focal-plane wavefront sensing for compact imaging phased-array telescopes: numerical and experimental demonstration 8713, 87130J (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    I. Mocoeur, L.M. Mugnier, F. Cassaing, Opt. Lett. 34, 3487 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Toulon, J. Primot, N. Guérineau, R. Haïdar, S. Velghe, R. Mercier, Opt. Commun. 279, 240 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Labeyrie, S.G. Lipson, P. Nisenson, An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry (Cambridge University Press, 2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Houairi, F. Cassaing, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 2503 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.R. Lawson, Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry, in Principles of Long Baseline Stellar Interferometry (2000)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Lombard
    • 1
  • C. Bellanger
    • 1
  • G. Canat
    • 1
  • L. Mugnier
    • 1
  • F. Cassaing
    • 1
  • V. Michau
    • 1
  • P. Bourdon
    • 1
  • J. Primot
    • 1
  1. 1.Onera, the French Aerospace LabPalaiseauFrance

Personalised recommendations