The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 222, Issue 10, pp 2607–2622 | Cite as

Dynamics of the brain: Mathematical models and non-invasive experimental studies

  • V. Toronov
  • T. Myllylä
  • V. Kiviniemi
  • V.V. Tuchin
Review Applications in Biology and Medicine


Dynamics is an essential aspect of the brain function. In this article we review theoretical models of neural and haemodynamic processes in the human brain and experimental non-invasive techniques developed to study brain functions and to measure dynamic characteristics, such as neurodynamics, neurovascular coupling, haemodynamic changes due to brain activity and autoregulation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. We focus on emerging theoretical biophysical models and experimental functional neuroimaging results, obtained mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also included our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral haemodynamics and simultaneous measurements of fast processes in the brain by near-infrared spectroscopy and a very novel functional MRI technique called magnetic resonance encephalography. Based on a rapid progress in theoretical and experimental techniques and due to the growing computational capacities and combined use of rapidly improving and emerging neuroimaging techniques we anticipate during next decade great achievements in the overall knowledge of the human brain.


Independent Component Analysis European Physical Journal Special Topic Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Cerebral Autoregulation Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Signal 
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Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Toronov
    • 1
  • T. Myllylä
    • 2
  • V. Kiviniemi
    • 3
  • V.V. Tuchin
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Ryerson University, Department of PhysicsTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of OuluOuluFinland
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyOulu University HospitalOuluFinland
  4. 4.Research-Educational Institute of Optics and Biophotonics, Saratov State UniversitySaratovRussia
  5. 5.Institute of Precise Mechanics and Control of Russian Academy of SciencesSaratovRussia

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