The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 222, Issue 9, pp 2157–2170 | Cite as

Spectral properties of natural and oil polluted Baltic seawater — results of measurements and modelling

  • V. Drozdowska
  • W. Freda
  • E. Baszanowska
  • K. Rudź
  • M. Darecki
  • J. R. Heldt
  • H. Toczek


Seawater in addition to natural components such as living and non-living organic matter contains also components artificially introduced into the marine environment, such as oil substances. These components, present in the surface layer of the sea, can significantly affect radiative transfer processes. Therefore, taking into account these processes in remote sensing measurements can improve assessment of the environment. To improve local seawater optical models, it is necessary to measure the luminescence properties of all components of seawater as well as the water leaving radiance values. Additionally, substances which form the surface microlayer (surfactants — surface active agents) can affect both the dynamic characteristics of the fluxes (in particular the gas exchange and marine aerosol production) as well as inherent optical properties of surface seawater. This paper contains both the results of research focused on introducing of an efficient method for identifying oils by their fluorescence spectra as well as a marine experiment on the identification of luminescent properties of surfactants — sampled in different regions of the Baltic Sea. Moreover, the aim of the presented study is to assess the impact of the oil emulsion to spectral water leaving signal. Those results are obtained both from running Monte Carlo radiative transfer code and from approximated formulas.


Radiative Transfer European Physical Journal Special Topic Chromophoric Dissolve Organic Matter Droplet Size Distribution Complex Refractive Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    D.J. Bogucki, J. Piskozub, M.-E. Carr, G.D. Spiers, Optics Express 15, 13988 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K.L. Carder, R.G. Steward, Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Coble, Marine Chem. 51, 325 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Cox, W. Munk, J. Optical Soc. Amer. 44, 838 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Darecki, A. Weeks, S. Sagan, P. Kowalczuk, S. Kaczmarek, Continental Shelf Res. 23, 237 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    V. Drozdowska, P. Kowalczuk, Oceanologia 41, 601 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    V. Drozdowska, S. Babichenko, A. Lisin, Oceanologia 44, 339 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    V. Drozdowska, Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 144, 141 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. Drozdowska, Oceanologia 49, 59 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. Falkowska, Oceanologia 43, 201 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Fingas, Oil chemical analysis, In: Oil spill science and technology, edited by Mervin Fingas (Elsevier, 2011), p. 87Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W. Freda, Oceanologia 54, 355 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. Freda, T. Król, O.V. Martynov, E.B. Shybanov, R. Hapter, Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 144, 147 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W. Freda, J. Piskozub, Opt. Expr. 15, 12763 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. Freda, J. Piskozub, Oceanologia 54, 29 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Gašparović, B. Ćosović, Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 58, 555 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H.R. Gordon, O.B. Brown, R.H. Evans, J.W. Brown, R.C. Smith, K.S. Baker, D.K. Clark, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Hudson, A. Baker, D. Reynolds, River Res. Appl. 23, 631 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Józefowicz, M. Aleksiejew, J.R. Heldt, A. Bajorek, J. Paczkowski, J. Heldt, Chem. Phys. 338, 53 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.T.O. Kirk, Appl. Optics 31, 6463 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Kowalczuk, J. Stoń-Egiert, W.J. Cooper, R.F. Whitehead, M.J. Durako, Marine Chem. 96, 273 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Z. Kozarac, B. Ćosović, S. Frka, D. Moebius, S. Hacke, Coll. Sur. A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 219, 173 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C.D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H.R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G.W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R.H. Stavn, Appl. Optics 32, 7484 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Olszewski, M. Darecki, Oceanologia 41, 99 (1999)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Ostrowska, B. Woźniak, J. Dera, Oceanologia 54, 565 (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Z. Otremba, Wpływ powierzchniowych zanieczyszczeń olejowych na strumień światła wychodzacy z morza (Prace Naukowe WSM, Gdynia, 1999, in Polish)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Z. Otremba, J. Piskozub, Opt. Expr. 11, 2 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Z. Otremba, J. Piskozub, Optica Appl. 34, 93 (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Z. Otremba, Opt. Expr. 15, 8592 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J. Piskozub, A.R. Weeks, J.N. Schwartz, I.S. Robinson, Appl. Optics 39, 1872 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Piskozub, Opt. Expr. 12, 3144 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Rudź, M. Darecki, H. Toczek, J. Kones Powertrain Transport 19, 473 (2011)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.A. Leathers, T.V. Downes, C.O. Davis, C.D. Mobley, Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer. Simulations for Ocean Optics: A Practical Guide (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Sagan, Inherent optical properties of Baltic Sea (IOPAN Rozprawy i monografie 21, Sopot, 2008, in Polish)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    W. Tsai, K. Liu, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3127 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    B. Woźniak, K. Bradtke, M. Darecki, J. Dera, J. Dudzińska-Nowak, L. Dzierzbicka-Gł owacka, D. Ficek, K. Furmańczyk, M. Kowalewski, A. Kreżel, R. Majchrowski, M Ostrowska, M. Paszkuta, J. Stoń-Egiert, M. Stramska, T. Zapadka, Oceanologia 53, 897 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    B. Woźniak, K. Bradtke, M. Darecki, J. Dera, J. Dudzińska-Nowak, L. Dzierzbicka-Gł owacka, D. Ficek, K. Furmańczyk, M. Kowalewski, A. Kreżel, R. Majchrowski, M Ostrowska, M. Paszkuta, J. Stoń-Egiert, M. Stramska, T. Zapadka, Oceanologia 53, 925 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    O. Zielinski, Sea Technol. 44, 28 (2003)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    V. Ẑutić, B. Ćosović, E. Marčenko, N. Bihari, Marine Chem. 10, 505 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Drozdowska
    • 1
  • W. Freda
    • 2
  • E. Baszanowska
    • 2
  • K. Rudź
    • 2
  • M. Darecki
    • 1
  • J. R. Heldt
    • 3
  • H. Toczek
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of OceanologyPolish Academy of SciencesSopotPoland
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsGdynia Maritime UniversityGdyniaPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Experimental PhysicsUniversity of GdańskGdańskPoland

Personalised recommendations