The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 223, Issue 5, pp 947–958 | Cite as

Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implications for energetics of water

  • Arthur Yu
  • Peter Carlson
  • Gerald H. Pollack
Regular Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Discussion and Debate: Water Complexity — More than a Myth?


We observed sustained axial flow through tubes immersed in water. The flow was spontaneous; i.e., no pressure gradient was applied. The tubes were made of hydrophilic materials: either the polymer Nafion, or a polyacrylic-acid gel in which a tunnel had been bored. Flow was monitored microscopically, with the aid of particles suspended in the water. The flow appears to be associated with recently discovered interfacial phase of water, which lines the insides of the tubes. This phase of water builds from electromagnetic energy absorbed by water from the surrounding environment [6]. That absorbed energy may power the observed flow.


Axial Velocity Capillary Tube European Physical Journal Special Topic Transverse Velocity Water Complexity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. Chai, H. Yoo, G.H. Pollack, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 13953 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Einstein, Ann. Phys. 17, 549 (1905)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. Klyuzhin, A. Symonds, J. Magula, G.H. Pollack, Environ. Sci. Techn. 42, 6160 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. O’Rourke, I.S. Klyuzhin, J.S. Park, G.H. Pollack, Phys. Rev. E (in press) (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.H. Pollack, Int’l J. Design Nat. 5, 27 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.H. Pollack, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor (Ebner and Sons, 2013)
  7. 7.
    H. Yoo, D.R. Baker, C.M. Pirie, B. Hovakeemian, G.H. Pollack, Characteristics of water adjacent to hydrophilic interfaces, Water: the Forgotten Molecule, ed. Denis LeBihan and Hidenao Fukuyama (Pan Stanford, 2011), p. 123Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Q. Zhao, J. Coult, G.H. Pollack, Proc. SPIE 7376, 73716C1 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.-M. Zheng, W.-C. Chin, E. Khijniak, E. Khijniak Jr., G.H. Pollack, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 19 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.M. Zheng, G.H. Pollack, Phys. Rev. E. 68, 031408 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Rohani, G.H. Pollack, Flow through horizontal tubes submerged in water in the absence of a pressure gradient: mechanistic considerations, Langmuir (in press) (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations