The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 185, Issue 1, pp 145–157 | Cite as

Real-time measurements, rare events and photon economics

Article

Abstract.

Rogue events otherwise known as outliers and black swans are singular, rare, events that carry dramatic impact. They appear in seemingly unconnected systems in the form of oceanic rogue waves, stock market crashes, evolution, and communication systems. Attempts to understand the underlying dynamics of such complex systems that lead to spectacular and often cataclysmic outcomes have been frustrated by the scarcity of events, resulting in insufficient statistical data, and by the inability to perform experiments under controlled conditions. Extreme rare events also occur in ultrafast physical sciences where it is possible to collect large data sets, even for rare events, in a short time period. The knowledge gained from observing rare events in ultrafast systems may provide valuable insight into extreme value phenomena that occur over a much slower timescale and that have a closer connection with human experience. One solution is a real-time ultrafast instrument that is capable of capturing singular and randomly occurring non-repetitive events. The time stretch technology developed during the past 13 years is providing a powerful tool box for reaching this goal. This paper reviews this technology and discusses its use in capturing rogue events in electronic signals, spectroscopy, and imaging. We show an example in nonlinear optics where it was possible to capture rare and random solitons whose unusual statistical distribution resemble those observed in financial markets. The ability to observe the true spectrum of each event in real time has led to important insight in understanding the underlying process, which in turn has made it possible to control soliton generation leading to improvement in the coherence of supercontinuum light. We also show a new class of fast imagers which are being considered for early detection of cancer because of their potential ability to detect rare diseased cells (so called rogue cells) in a large population of healthy cells.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    N. Taleb, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Random House, New York, 2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Gladwell, Outliers: the story of success (Little, Brown and Company, 2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Anderson, The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More (Hyperion, New York, 2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, B. Jalali, Nature 450Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1054 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.M. Dudley, G. Genty, B.J. Eggleton, Opt. Exp. 16Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 3644 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Efimov, A.J. Taylor, Opt. Exp. 16Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 5942 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.V. Bludov, V.V. Konotop, N. Akhmediev, Opt. Lett. 34Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 3015 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Hammani, C. Finot, B. Kibler, G. Millot, IEEE Photon. J. 1Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 205 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Borlaug, S. Fathpour, B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. J. 1Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 33 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.M. Berger, B. Mandelbrot, IBM Journal 7Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 224 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Savory, F. Payne, A. Hadjifotiou, J. Lightwave Technol. 24Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 3907 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Deakin, ScienceDaily (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Kaiser, Science 327Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1072 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Hull, Fundamentals of Futures and Options Markets, 7th edn. (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2004) ISBN 978-0-13-610322-6Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Sornette, Why Stock Markets Crash: Critical Events in Complex Financial Systems (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Goda, K.K. Tsia, B. Jalali, Nature 458Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1145 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Han, B. Jalali, J. Lightwave Technol. 21Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 3085 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D.R. Solli, J. Chou, B. Jalali, Nature Photon. 2Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 48 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Coppinger, A.S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, Electronics Letters 34Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 399 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, Electronics Lett. 34Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1081 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.V. Kelkar, F. Coppinger, A.S. Bhushan, B. Jalali, Electron. Lett. 35Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1661 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1140 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Goda, D.R. Solli, B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 031106 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Chou, D.R. Solli, B. Jalalim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 111102 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.T. Sanders, Appl. Phys. B. 75Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 799 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. Hult, R.S. Watt, C.F. Kaminski, Opt. Exp. 15Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 11385 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Goda, D.R. Solli, K.K. Tsia, B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. A 80Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 043821 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    D.R. Solli, S. Gupta, B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 231108 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th edn. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2007)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D.J. Kane, R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 18Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 823 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Stigwall, S. Galt. Non-linear signal retrieval in wide-band photonic time-stretch systems using the gerchberg-saxton algorithm, in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Grenoble, France, 2006), p. 1Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    S. Gupta, J. Stigwall, S. Galt, B. Jalali, Demonstration of distortion suppression in photonic time-stretch adc using back propagation method, in IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (Victoria, BC, Canada, 2007), p. 141Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D.R. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 233903 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Genty, J.M. Dudley, B.J. Eggleton, J. Appl. Phys. B 94Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 187 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    D.R. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept? 151108 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.R. Solli, C. Ropers, B. Jalali, (2009) [arXiv:0912.4817]Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    H.R. Petty, Optics Photon. News 15Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 40 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    H.R. Petty, Biosystems 83Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 217 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B.F. Rodak, G.A. Fritsma, K. Doig (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J.V. Watson (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M.A. Owens, M.R. Loken (1994)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. Goda, K.K. Tsia, B. Jalal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 131109 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Amnis Corporation: http://www.amnis.comGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    See Hamamatsu’s tutorial about streak cameras: http://learn.hamamatsu.com/tutorials/streakcameraGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang, M.R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C.A. Puliafito, J.G. Fujimoto, Science 254Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 1178 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Hausler, M.W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 21 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C.K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, Rep. Prog. Phys. 66Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 239 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D.C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J.G. Fujimoto, Nature Photon. 1Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 709 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    D.C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, J.G. Fujimoto, Nature Photon. 1Discussion & Debate : Rogue Waves - Towards a Unifying Concept?, 709 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Jalali
    • 1
  • D.R. Solli
    • 1
  • K. Goda
    • 1
  • K. Tsia
    • 2
  • C. Ropers
    • 3
  1. 1.Photonics LaboratoryLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Courant Res. Center Nano-Spectrosc. & X-Ray Imaging, Georg-August-Univ. GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations