The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 11–18 | Cite as

Real-time studies of thin film growth: Measurement and analysis of X-ray growth oscillations beyond the anti-Bragg point

  • S. Kowarik
  • A. Gerlach
  • M. W. A Skoda
  • S. Sellner
  • F. Schreiber
Regular Article


Monitoring X-ray growth oscillations, i.e. temporal oscillations of the X-ray reflectivity during thin film growth, is an important technique for in-situ and real-time characterization of heteroepitaxy. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous acquisition and analysis of not only one, but a set of growth oscillations in a wide range of the reciprocal space (q-space). Importantly, the combined information of these growth oscillations removes ambiguities inherent in the analysis of a single (anti-Bragg) oscillation. Wide q-range measurements also enlarge the accessible parameter range in film thickness and roughness, as measurements at optimized q-values exhibit a larger amplitude and lower damping during growth. As an example we analyze oscillations at \(q={\raise.5ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 1$}\kern-.1em/ \kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 2$}}\), \({\raise.5ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 2$}\kern-.1em/ \kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 3$}}\), \({\raise.5ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 3$}\kern-.1em/ \kern-.15em\lower.25ex\hbox{$\scriptstyle 4$}}\ldots,q_{\textrm{Bragg}}\) during molecular beam deposition of the organic semiconductor diindenoperylene using kinematic scattering theory. From this we derive the growth mode and the surface roughening with film thickness.


European Physical Journal Special Topic Bragg Condition Crystalline Layer Interface Width Thin Film Growth 
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Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kowarik
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Gerlach
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. W. A Skoda
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Sellner
    • 1
  • F. Schreiber
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Universität Tübingen, Institut für Angewandte PhysikTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Oxford UniversityOxfordUK

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