Quantum entanglement in physical and cognitive systems: A conceptual analysis and a general representation

  • D. Aerts
  • J. Aerts Arguëlles
  • L. Beltran
  • S. Geriente
  • M. Sassoli de Bianchi
  • S. SozzoEmail author
  • T. Veloz
Open Access
Regular Article


We provide a general description of the phenomenon of entanglement in bipartite systems, as it manifests in micro and macro physical systems, as well as in human cognitive processes. We do so by observing that when genuine coincidence measurements are considered, the violation of the ‘marginal laws’, in addition to the Bell-CHSH inequality, is also to be expected. The situation can be described in the quantum formalism by considering the presence of entanglement not only at the level of the states, but also at the level of the measurements. However, at the “local” level of a specific joint measurement, a description where entanglement is only incorporated in the state remains always possible, by adopting a fine-tuned tensor product representation. But contextual tensor product representations should only be considered when there are good reasons to describe the outcome-states as (non-entangled) product states. This will not in general be true, hence, the entanglement resource will have to generally be allocated both in the states and in the measurements. In view of the numerous violations of the marginal laws observed in physics’ laboratories, it remains unclear to date if entanglement in micro-physical systems is to be understood only as an ‘entanglement of the states’, or also as an ‘entanglement of the measurements’. But even if measurements would also be entangled, the corresponding violation of the marginal laws (also called ‘no-signaling conditions’) would not for this imply that a superluminal communication would be possible.



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Open Access This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Aerts
    • 1
  • J. Aerts Arguëlles
    • 1
  • L. Beltran
    • 1
  • S. Geriente
    • 1
  • M. Sassoli de Bianchi
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Sozzo
    • 3
    Email author
  • T. Veloz
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Center Leo ApostelBrussels Free UniversityBrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Laboratorio di Autoricerca di BaseBarbengoSwitzerland
  3. 3.School of Business and Centre IQSCSUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  4. 4.Universidad Andres BelloDepartamento Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad Ciencias de la VidaSantiagoChile
  5. 5.Fundación para el Desarrollo Interdisciplinario de la Ciencia la Tecnología y las ArtesSantiagoChile

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