On non-linear Schrödinger equations for open quantum systems
Recently, two generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations have been proposed by Chavanis (Eur. Phys. J. Plus 132, 286 (2017)) by applying Nottale's theory of scale relativity relying on a fractal space-time to describe dissipation in quantum systems. Several existing nonlinear equations are then derived and discussed in this context leading to a continuity equation with an extra source/sink term which violates Ehrenfest theorem. An extension to describe stochastic dynamics is also carried out by including thermal fluctuations or noise of the environment. These two generalized nonlinear equations are analyzed within the Bohmian mechanics framework to describe the corresponding dissipative and stochastic dynamics in terms of quantum trajectories. Several applications of this second generalized equation which can be considered as a generalized Kostin equation have been carried out. The first application consists of the study of the position-momentum uncertainty principle in a dissiaptive dynamics. After, the so-called Brownian-Bohmian motion is investigated by calculating classical and quantum diffusion coefficients. And as a third example, transmission through a transient (time-dependent) parabolic repeller is studied where the interesting phenomenon of early arrival is observed even in the stochastic dynamics although the magnitude of early arrival is reduced by friction.
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