Advertisement

Neurodegenerative dementias: From MR Physics lab to assessment room

  • S. D. BrunoEmail author
  • M. Cercignani
  • C. A. M. Wheeler-Kingshott
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Focus Point on Advanced Physical Methods in Brain Research

Abstract.

Theimpact of neuroimaging on the study and understanding of dementing illnesses has been enormous. Here we review the main MR structural technical developments applied to Alzheimer’s disease and fronto-temporal dementia, two forms of neurodegenerative disorders that have a number of similarities but also several differences. The possibility of detecting increasingly subtle brain changes, together with the need of handling larger and larger data sets, keeping up with the ever expanding aging population, are perhaps the main driving forces behind recent MR technique developments in the field of dementia. The measurement of atrophy is now integrated by more advanced approaches, investigating the alterations of the architecture of brain tissues beyond pure volumetric loss. Brain connectivity is now studied in vivo with techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. Also, automated methods of subject classification open up new possibilities of rapid and cost-effective diagnosis. The inter-disciplinary efforts are changing the clinical scenario of dementia care from one of helpless defeat to one of promising innovation.

Keywords

Dementia White Matter Grey Matter Mild Cognitive Impairment Fractional Anisotropy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    G.M. McKhann, D.S. Knopman, H. Chertkow, B.T. Hyman, C.R. Jack Jr., C.H. Kawas, W.E. Klunk, W.J. Koroshetz, J.J. Manly, R. Mayeux, R.C. Mohs, J.C. Morris, M.N. Rossor, P. Scheltens, M.C. Carrillo, B. Thies, S. Weintraub, C.H. Phelps, Alzheimer Dementia 7, 263 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.J. Tabrizi, R. Reilmann, R.A. Roos, A. Durr, B. Leavitt, G. Owen, R. Jones, H. Johnson, D. Craufurd, S.L. Hicks, C. Kennard, B. Landwerhmeyer, J.C. Stout, B. Borowsky, R.I. Scahill, C. Frost, D.R. Langbehn, Lancet Neurol. 11, 42 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.W. Weiner, D.P. Veitch, P.S. Aisen, L.A. Beckett, N.J. Cairns, R.C. Green, D. Harvey, C.R. Jack, W. Jagust, E. Liu, J.C. Morris, R.C. Petersen, A.J. Saykin, M.E. Schmidt, L. Shaw, J.A. Siuciak, H. Soares, A.W. Toga, J.Q. Trojanowski, Alzheimer Dementia 8, S1 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.M. Haacke, R.W. Brown, M.R. Thompson, R. Venkatesan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Physical Principles and Sequence Design (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D.W. McRobbie, E.A. Moore, M.J. Graves, M.R. Prince, MRI from Picture to Proton (Cambridge University Press, 2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Tofts, Quantitative MRI of the Brain: Measuring Changes Caused by Disease (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Deichmann, C. Schwarzbauer, R. Turner, NeuroImage 21, 757 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.J. Basser, J. Mattiello, D. LeBihan, Biophys. J. 66, 259 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Pierpaoli, P.J. Basser, Magn. Reson. Med. 36, 893 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.K. Song, S.W. Sun, M.J. Ramsbottom, C. Chang, J. Russell, A.H. Cross, NeuroImage 17, 1429 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.A. Wheeler-Kingshott, M. Cercignani, Magn. Reson. Med. 61, 1255 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E.O. Stejskal, J.E. Tanner, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 288 (1965)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.K. Jones, M.A. Horsfield, A. Simmons, Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 515 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Beaulieu, NMR Biomed. 15, 435 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Ogawa, R.S. Menon, D.W. Tank, S.G. Kim, H. Merkle, J.M. Ellermann, K. Ugurbil, Biophys. J. 64, 803 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.B. Eickhoff, C. Grefkes, Clin. EEG Neurosci. 42, 107 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. Scheltens, D. Leyes, F. Barkhof, D. Huglo, H.C. Weinstein, P. Vermersch, M. Kuiper, M. Steinling, E.C. Wolters, J. Valk, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 55, 967 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.J. Galton, B. Gomez-Anson, N. Antoun, P. Scheltens, K. Patterson, M. Graves, B.J. Sahakian, J.R. Hodges, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 70, 165 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Lemieux, G. Hagemann, K. Krakow, F.G. Woermann, Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 127 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.M. Smith, N. De Stefano, M. Jenkinson, P.M. Matthews, J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 25, 466 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Ashburner, K. Friston, NeuroImage 6, 209 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N.C. Andreasen, G. Cogen, G. Harris, T. Cizadlo, J. Parkkinen, K. Rezai et al., J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 4, 125 (1992)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.A. Freeborough, N.C. Fox, J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 20, 1012 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Ashburner, K.J. Friston, NeuroImage 11, 805 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. Ashburner, K.J. Friston, NeuroImage 14, 1238 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Rosenfeld, A.C. Kak Digital Picture Processing 2 (Academic Press, Orlando, 1982)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.J. Worsley, A.C. Evans, S. Marrett, P. Neelin, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 12, 900 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T.E. Nichols, A.P. Holmes, Hum. Brain Mapp. 15, 1 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. Fischl, NeuroImage 62, 774 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A.M. Dale, B. Fischl, M.I. Sereno, NeuroImage 9, 179 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Cercignani, G. Iannucci, M.A. Rocca, G. Comi, M.A. Horsfield, M. Filippi, Neurology 54, 1139 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.S. Yu, F.C. Lin, Y. Liu, Y. Duan, H. Lei, K.C. Li, Eur. J. Radiol. 68, 328 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Buchel, T. Raedler, M. Sommer, M. Sach, C. Weiller, M.A. Koch, Cereb. Cortex 14, 945 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. Foong, M.R. Symms, G.J. Barker, M. Maier, D.H. Miller, M.A. Ron, Neuroreport 13, 333 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    F.L. Bookstein, NeuroImage 14, 1454 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.K. Jones, M.R. Symms, M. Cercignani, R.J. Howard, Neuroimage 26, 546 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S.M. Smith, M. Jenkinson, H. Johansen-Berg, D. Rueckert, T.E. Nichols, C.E. Mackay, K.E. Watkins, O. Ciccarelli, M.Z. Cader, P.M. Matthews et al., NeuroImage 31, 1487 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Mori, B.J. Crain, V.P. Cjacko, P.C.van Zijl, Ann. Neurol. 45, 265 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    T.E. Conturo, N.F. Lori, T.S. Cull, E. Akbudak, A.Z. Snyder, J.S. Shimony, R.C. MvKinstry, H. Burton, M.E. Raichle, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10422 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    G.J.Parker, H.A. Haroon, C.A. Wheeler-Kingshott, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 18, 242 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    T.E. Behrens, M.W. Woolrich, M. Jenkinson, H. Johansen-Berg, R.G. Nunes, S. Clare, P.M. Matthews, J.M. Brady, S.M. Smith, Magn. Reson. Med. 50, 1077 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. Heiervang, T.E. Behrens, C.E. Mackay, M.D. Robson, H. Johansen-Berg, NeuroImage 33, 867 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Rubinov, O. Sporns, NeuroImage 52, 1059 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.S. Bassett, E. Bullmore, Neuroscientist 12, 512 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C.R. Jack Jr., D.S. Knopman, W.J. Jagust, L.M. Shaw, P.S. Aisen, M.W. Weiner, R.C. Petersen, J.Q. Trojanowski, Lancet Neurol. 9, 119 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C.R. Jack Jr., V.J. Lowe, S.D. Weigand, H.J. Wiste, M.L. Senjem, D.S. Knopman, M.M. Shiung, J.L. Gunter, B.F. Boeve, B.J. Kemp, M. Weiner, R.C. Petersen, Brain 132, 1355 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M.S. Albert, S.T. DeKosky, D. Dickson, B. Dubois, H.H. Feldman, N.C. Fox et al., Alzheimer Dementia 7, 270 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.A. Sperling, P.S. Aisen, L.A. Beckett, D.A. Bennett, S. Craft, A.M. Fagan, T. Iwatsubo, C.R. Jack Jr., J. Kaye, T.J. Montine, D.C. Park, E.M. Reiman, C.C. Rowe, E. Siemers, Y. Stern, K. Yaffe, M.C. Carrillo, B. Thies, M. Morrison-Bogorad, M.V. Wagster, C.H. Phelps, Alzheimer Dementia 7, 280 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    N.C. Fox, P.A. Freeborough, J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 7, 1069 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    N.C. Fox, R.I. Scahill, W.R. Crum, M.N. Rossor, Neurology 52, 1687 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    G.D. Rabinovici, W.W. Seeley, E.J. Kim, M.L. Gorno-Tempini, K. Rascovsky, T.A. Pagliaro et al., Am. J. Alzheimer Dis. Other Demen. 22, 474 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.M. Schott, J.W. Bartlett, J. Barnes, K.K. Leung, S. Ourselin, N.C. Fox et al., Neurobiol. Aging 31, 1452 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J.L. Gunter, M.A. Bernstein, B.J. Borowski, C.P. Ward, P.J. Britson, J.P. Felmlee et al., Med. Phys. 36, 2193 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    F. Kruggel, J. Turner, L.T. Muftuler, Neuroimage 49, 2123 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    B. Mortamet, M.A. Bernstein, C.R. Jack, J.L. Gunter, C. Ward, P.J. Britson et al., Magn. Reson. Med. 62, 365 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    M.J. Clarkson, S. Ourselin, C. Nielsen, K.K. Leung, J. Barnes, J.L. Whitwell et al., NeuroImage 47, 1506 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    K.K. Leung, J. Barnes, G.R. Ridgway, J.W. Bartlett, M.J. Clarkson, K. Macdonald et al., NeuroImage 51, 1345 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    K.K. Leung, M.J. Clarkson, J.W. Bartlett, S. Clegg, C.R. Jack Jr., M.W. Weiner et al., NeuroImage 50, 516 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J.M. Lotjonen, R. Wolz, J.R. Koikkalainen, L. Thurfjell, G. Waldemar, H. Soininen et al., NeuroImage 49, 2352 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. Wolz, P. Aljabar, J.V. Hajnal, A. Hammers, D. Rueckert, NeuroImage 49, 1316 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    R.A. Heckemann, S. Keihaninejad, P. Aljabar, D. Rueckert, J.V. Hajnal, A. Hammers, NeuroImage 51, 221 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. Wang, F. Beg, T. Ratnanather, C. Ceritoglu, L. Younes, J.C. Morris, J.G. Csernansky, M.I. Miller, IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 26, 462 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. Chupin, E. Gerardin, R. Cuingnet, C. Boutet, L. Lemieux, S. Lehericy et al., Hippocampus 19, 579 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    N. Amoroso, R. Bellotti, S.B. Bruno, A. Chincarini, G. Logroscino, S. Tangaro, Automated shape analysis landmarks detection for medical image processing, in Computational Modelling of Objects Represented in Images, edited by Di Giamberardino (Taylor & Francis, 2012) pp. 1139-142Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J.H. Morra, Z. Tu, L.G. Apostolova, A.E. Green, C. Avedissian, S.K. Madsen et al., NeuroImage 43, 59 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    J. Ashburner, K.J. Friston Morphometry, in Human Brain Function, edited by R.S.J. Frackowiak, K.J. Friston, C. Frith, R. Dolan, K.J. Friston, C.J. Price, S. Zeki, J. Ashburner, W.D. Penny 2nd edition (Academic Press, 2003)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    L.K. Ferreira, B.S. Diniz, O.V. Forlenza, G.F. Busatto, M.V. Zanetti, Neurobiol. Aging 32, 1733 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. Li, P. Pan, R. Huang, H. Shang, Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36, 757 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    X. Hua, A.D. Leow, S. Lee, A.D. Klunder, A.W. Toga, N. Lepore, Y.-Y. Chou, C. Brun, M.-C. Chiang, M. Barysheva, C.R. Jack Jr., M.A. Bernstein, P.J. Britson, C.P. Ward, J.L. Whitwell, B. Borowski, A.S. Fleisher, N.C. Fox, R.G. Boyes, J. Barnes, D. Harvey, J. Kornak, N. Schuff, L. Boreta, G.E. Alexander, M.W. Weiner, P.M. Thompson, NeuroImage 41, 19 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    D.A. Leow, I. Yanovsky, N. Parikshak, X. Hua, S. Lee, A.W. Toga, C.R. Jack Jr., M.A. Bernstein, P.J. Britson, J.L. Gunter, C.P. Ward, B. Borowski, L.M. Shaw, J.Q. Trojanowski, A.S. Fleisher, D. Harvey, J. Kornak, N. Schuff, G.E. Alexander, M.W. Weiner, P.M. Thompson, NeuroImage 45, 645 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J.P. Lerch, J.C. Pruessner, A. Zijdenbos, H. Hampel, S.D. Teipel, A.C. Evans, Cereb. Cortex 15, 995 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    L. Gutierrez-Galve, M. Lehmann, N.Z. Hobbs, M.J. Clarkson, C.R. Ridgway, S. Crutch, S. Ourselin, J.M. Schott, N.C. Fox, J. Barnes, Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 28, 476 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    M.J. Clarkson, M.J. Cardoso, G.R. Ridgway, M. Modat, K.K. Leung, J.D. Rohrer, N.C. Fox, S. Ourselin, NeuroImage 57, 856 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R.D. King, A.T. George, T. Jeon, L.S. Hynan, T.S. Youn, D.N. Kennedy, B. Dickerson, Brain Imaging Behav. 3, 154 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Pievani, W. de Haan, T. Wu, W.W. Seeley, G.B. Frisoni, Lancet Neurol. 10, 829 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    S. Mori, P.C.M. van Zijl, NMR Biomed. 15, 468 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M.J. Müller, D. Greverus, P.R. Dellani, C. Weibrich, P.R. Wille, A. Scheurich, P. Stoeter, A. Fellgiebel, NeuroImage 28, 1033 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    E. Canu, D.G. McLaren, M.E. Fitzgerald, B.B. Bendlin, G. Zoccatelli, F. Alessandrini, F.B. Pizzini, G.K. Ricciardi, A. Beltramello, S.C. Johnson, G.B. Frisoni, J. Alzheimer Dis. 19, 963 (2010)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    A. Fellgiebel, P.R. Dellani, D. Greverus, A. Scheurich, P. Stoeter, M.J. Müller, Psychiatry Res. 146, 283 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    K. Kantarci, R.C. Petersen, B.F. Boeve, D.S. Knopman, S.D. Weigand, P.C. O’Brien, M.M. Shiung, G.E. Smith, R.J. Ivnik, E.G. Tangalos, C.R. Jack Jr., Neurology 64, 902 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    C.E. Sexton, U.G. Kalu, N. Filippini, C.E. Mackay, K.P. Ebmeier, Neurobiol. Aging 32, 2322.e5 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    E. Bullmore, O. Sporns, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    P. Calvini, A. Chincarini, G. Gemme, M.A. Penco, S. Squarcia, F. Nobili, G. Rodriguez, R. Bellotti, E. Catanzariti, P. Cerello, I. De Mitri, M.E. Fantacci, Med. Phys. 36, 3737 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Chincarini, P. Bosco, P. Calvini, G. Gemme, M. Esposito, C. Olivieri, L. Rei, S. Squarcia, G. Rodriguez, R. Bellotti, P. Cerello, I. De Mitri, A. Retico, F. Nobili, NeuroImage 58, (2011)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    E. Ratnavalli, C. Brayne, K. Dawson et al., Neurology 58, 1615 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    R.J. Harvey, M. Skelton-Robinson, M.N. Rossor, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74, 1206 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    B. Borroni, A. Alberici, M. Grassi et al., J. Alzheimer Dis. 19, 11 (2010)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    M.L. Gorno-Tempini, A.E. Hillis, S. Weintraub, A. Kertesz, M. Mendez, S.F. Cappa et al., Neurology 76, 1006 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    J.L. Whitwell, K.A. Josephs, Nat. Rev. Neurol. 8, 131 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    D. Chan, N.C. Fox, R. Jenkins, R.I. Scahill, W.R. Crum, M.N. Rossor, Neurology 57, 1756 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    E. Gordon, J.D. Rohrer, L.G. Kim, R. Omar, M.N. Rossor, N.C. Fox et al., Neurology 74, 666 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    F. Agosta, E. Canu, L. Sano, G. Comi, M. Filippi, Cortex 48, 389 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    J.L. Whitwell, S.D. Weigan, B.F. Boeve, M.L. Senjem, J.L. Gunter, M. DeJesus-Hernandez, N.J. Rutherford, M. Baker, D.S. Knopman, Z.K. Wszolek, J.E. Parisi, D.W. Dickson, R.C. Peterson, R. Rademakers, C.R. Jack Jr., K. Josephs, Brain 135, 794 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    J.L. Whitwell, R. Avula, M.L. Sentem, K. Kantarci, S.D. Weigand, A. Samikoglu, H.A. Edmonson, P. Vemuri, D.S. Knopman, B.F. Boeve, R.C. Petersen, K.A. Josephs, C.R. Jack Jr., Neurology 74, 1279 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    B.B. Avants, P.A. Cook, L. Ungar, J.C. Gee, M. Grossman, NeuroImage 50, 1004 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    S. Klöppel, C.M. Stonnington, C. Chu, B. Draganski, R.I. Scahill, J.D. Rohrer, N.C. Fox, C.R. Jack Jr., J. Ashburner, R.S.J. Frackowiak, Brain 131, 681 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    C. Davatzikos, S.M. Resnick, X. Wu, P.Pampi, C.M. Clark, NeuroImage 41, 1220 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    P. Vemuri, G. Simon, K. Kantarci, J.L. Whitwell, M.L. Sentem, S.A. Przybelski, G.L. Gunter, K.A. Josephs, D.S. Knopman, B.F. Boeve, T.J. Ferman, D.W. Dickson, J.E. Parisi, R.C. Petersen, C.R. Jack Jr., NeuroImage 55, 522 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. D. Bruno
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Cercignani
    • 2
  • C. A. M. Wheeler-Kingshott
    • 3
  1. 1.Centro Malattie NeurodegenerativeAzienda Ospedaliera “Card. G. Panico”TricaseItaly
  2. 2.Clinical Imaging Science Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical SchoolUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  3. 3.Department of NeuroinflammationUCL, Institute of NeurologyLondonUK

Personalised recommendations