Advertisement

The European Physical Journal H

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 119–183 | Cite as

How hadron collider experiments contributed to the development of QCD: from hard-scattering to the perfect liquid

  • M. J. Tannenbaum
Article
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

A revolution in elementary particle physics occurred during the period from the ICHEP1968 to the ICHEP1982 with the advent of the parton model from discoveries in Deeply Inelastic electron-proton Scattering at SLAC, neutrino experiments, hard-scattering observed in p+p collisions at the CERN ISR, the development of QCD, the discovery of the J/Ψ at BNL and SLAC and the clear observation of high transverse momentum jets at the CERN SPS  + p collider. These and other discoveries in this period led to the acceptance of QCD as the theory of the strong interactions. The desire to understand nuclear physics at high density such as in neutron stars led to the application of QCD to this problem and to the prediction of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) in nuclei at high energy density and temperatures. This eventually led to the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL to observe superdense nuclear matter in the laboratory. This article discusses how experimental methods and results which confirmed QCD at the first hadron collider, the CERN ISR, played an important role in experiments at the first heavy ion collider, RHIC, leading to the discovery of the QGP as a perfect liquid as well as discoveries at RHIC and the LHC which continue to the present day.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ’t Hooft, G, 1999. Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 74: 413–425. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aad, G. et al. (ATLAS). 2010. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105: 252303 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aad, G. et al. (ATLAS). 2012. Phys. Lett. B 716: 1–29 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aamodt, K. et al. (ALICE). 2008. JINST 3: S08002 ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abachi, S. et al. (D0). 1995. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 2632–2637 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abazov, V.M. et al. (D0). 2008. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101: 062001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abe, F. et al. (CDF). 1988. Phys. Rev. Lett. 61: 1819–1822 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abe, F. et al. (CDF). 1995. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74: 2626–2631 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abelev, B. et al. (ALICE). 2014. Phys. Lett. B 734: 314–327 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abramov, V.V. et al. 1976. Phys. Lett. B 64: 365–368 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abramowicz, H. et al. (CDHS). 1982. Z. Phys. C 12: 289–295 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Abrams, G.-S. et al. 1974. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33: 1453–1455. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Acosta, D. et al. (CDF). 2005. Phys. Rev. 71: 032001 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adamczyk, L. et al. (STAR). 2014. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113: 092301 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Adams, J. et al. 2005. NPA 757: 102–183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2006. Phys. Rev. Lett. 97: 252002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2007a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98: 172301. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2007b. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98: 232301. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2010. Phys. Rev. D 82: 072001. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2012. Phys. Rev. 86: 072008. Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2016. Phys. Rev. C 93: 011910(R). ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adare, A. et al. (PHENIX). 2017. Phys. Rev. D 95: 072002. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adcox K. et al. (PHENIX). 2002a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88: 192303. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adcox, K. et al. (PHENIX). 2002b. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88: 022301. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adcox, K. et al. (PHENIX). 2005. Nucl. Phys. A 757: 184–283. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Adler, S.S. et al. (PHENIX). 2005. Phys. Rev. C 71: 034908. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adler, S.S. et al. (PHENIX). 2006. Phys. Rev. D 74: 072002. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adler, S.S. et al. (PHENIX). 2014. Phys. Rev. C 89: 044905. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Akesson, T. et al. (AFS). 1983. Phys. Lett. B 128: 354–360. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Akesson, T. et al. (AFS). 1987. Z. Phys. C 34: 293–302. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Albrow, M.G. et al. (BFS). 1978. Nucl. Phys. B 145: 305–348. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alessandro, B. et al. (NA50). 2005. Eur. Phys. J. C 39: 335–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alper, B. et al. (British-Scandinavian ISR Collaboration). 1973. Phys. Lett. B 44: 521–526. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Alper, B. et al. p. V-9, Fig. 1 in Ref. (Segler et al. 1974). Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alper, B. et al. (British-Scandinavian). 1975a. Nucl. Phys. B 87: 19–40. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Alper, B. et al. (BS). 1975b. Nucl. Phys. B 100: 237–290. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Altarelli, G., R.A. Brandt, G. Preparata. 1971. Phys. Rev. Lett. 26: 42–46. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Altarelli, G., Parisi, G. 1977. Nucl. Phys. B 126: 298–318. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Althoff, M. et al. (TASSO). 1984. Z. Phys. C 22: 307–340. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Amaldi, E. et al. 1979. Nucl. Phys. B 150: 326–344. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Anassontzis, E. et al. (R806). 1982. Z. Phys. C 13: 277–289. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Andronic, A., P. Braun-Munzinger, K. Redlich, J. Stachel. 2007. Nucl. Phys. A 789: 334–356. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1978. Phys. Lett. B 79: 505–510. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1979a. Phys. Scr. 19: 116–123. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1979b. Phys. Lett. B 87: 398–402. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1980a. Phys. Lett. B 94: 106–112. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1980b. Phys. Lett. B 97: 163–168. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CCOR). 1982a. Nucl. Phys. B 209: 284–300. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (COR). 1982b. Phys. Lett. B 116: 379–382. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (COR). 1983. Phys. Lett. B 126: 132–136. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (BCMOR). 1987. Phys. Lett. B 185: 213–217. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Angelis, A.L.S. et al. (CMOR). 1989. Nucl. Phys. B 327: 541–568. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Angelis, A.L.S., Tanaka, M. et al. (BCMOR). 1984. Nucl. Phys. A 418: 321c–326c. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Antreasyan, D., J.W. Cronin et al. 1979. Phys. Rev. D 19: 764–778. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Appel, J.A. et al. 1974. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 722–725. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Appel, J.A. et al. (UA2). 1986. Z. Phys. C 30: 1–22. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Appelquist, T., H.D. Politzer. 1975. Phys. Rev. Lett. 34: 43–45. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Arnison, G. et al. (UA1). 1983a. Phys. Lett. B 122: 103–116. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arnison, G. et al. (UA1). 1983b. Phys. Lett. B 126: 398–410. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Arnison, G. et al. (UA1). 1984. Phys. Lett. B 136: 294–300. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arsene, I. et al. (BRAHMS). 2005. Nucl. Phys. A 757: 1–27. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Aubert, J.J. et al. 1974. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33: 1404–1406. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Augustin, J.-E. et al. 1974. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33: 1406–1408. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aurenche, P., J. Ph. Guillet, E. Pilon, M. Werlen, M. Fontannaz. 2006. Phys. Rev. D 73: 094007. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCR). 1973. Phys. Lett. B 46: 471–476. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1974. Phys. Lett. B 53: 212–216. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1975a. Phys. Lett. B 56: 482–486. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Büsser,F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1975b. Fig. 12a, p. 281 in Ref (Lederman 1975). Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1975c. Phys. Lett. B 55: 232–2236. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1976a. Nucl. Phys. B 106: 1–30. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Büsser, F.W. et al. (CCRS). 1976b. Nucl. Phys. B 113: 189–245. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Back, B.B. et al. (PHOBOS). 2005. Nucl. Phys. A 757: 28–101. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bagnaia, P. et al. (UA2). 1983. Phys. Lett. B 129: 130–140. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Baier, R., Dokshitzer, Yu.L., Mueller, A.H., Peigné, S., Schiff, D. 1997. Nucl. Phys. B 483: 291–320. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Baier, R., Schiff, D. Zakharov, B.G. 2000. Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 50: 37–69. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Baier, R. 2003. Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions, Nantes, France, July 18–24, 2002, H. Gutbrod, J. Aichelin and K. Werner (eds.) Nucl. Phys. A 715: 209c–218c. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Baier, R., Tannenbaum, M.J. 1998. Proc. IV Workshop on Quantum Chromodynamics, Paris, France, June 1–6, 1998, H.M. Fried and B. Müller (eds.) (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999) pp. 272–285 Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Banner, M. et al. 1973. (Saclay-Strasbourg Collaboration). Phys. Lett. B 44: 537–540. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Banner, M. et al. (UA2). 1983. Phys. Lett. B 122: 476–485. ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Basile, M. et al. 1981 Nuovo Cimento A65: 421–456. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Baum, L. et al. (CHORMN). 1976. Phys. Lett. B 60: 485–490. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bazavov, A. et al. 2012. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109: 192302. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Berman, S.M., J.D. Bjorken, J.B. Kogut. 1971. Phys. Rev. D 4: 3388–3418. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bernardini, G., Bienlein, J.K., Von Dardel, G., Faissner, H., Ferrerero, F., Gaillard, H.J., Gerber, J.M., Hahn, B., Kaftanov, V., Krienen, F., Manfredotti, C., Reinharz, M., Salmeron, R.A. 1964. Phys. Lett. 13: 86–91. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bernstein,J. 1963. Phys. Rev. 129: 2323–2325. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Billan, J., R. Perin and V. Sergo. 1972. Proc. 4th International Conference on Magnet Technology (Upton, NY, 19-22 September, 1972) Y. Winterbottom (editor)(Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1972) pp. 433–443. http://inspirehep.net/record/80276/files/C720919-p433.PDF
  87. 87.
    Bjorken, B.J. and S.L. Glashow. 1964. Phys. Lett. 11: 255–257. ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bjorken, J.D. 1971. Proc. 1971 International Symposium on Electron and Photon Interactions at High Energies (Cornell University, 23–27 August, 1971) N.B. Mistry (editor) (Cornell, Ithaca, NY, 1971) pp. 282–297 Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bjorken, J.D. 1973. Phys. Rev. D 8: 4098–4106. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bjorken, J.D. 1969. Phys. Rev. 179: 1547–1553. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bjorken, J.D. 1983. Phys. Rev. D 27: 140–151. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bjorken, J.D., Paschos, E.A. 1969. Phys. Rev. 185: 1975–1982. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Blankenbecler, R., Brodsky, S.J., Gunion, J.F. 1972. Phys. Lett. B 42: 461–465. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Borsanyi, S. et al. 2014. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113: 052301. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bourquin, M., Gaillard, 1976. Nucl. Phys. B 114: 334–364. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Boyarski, A.M. et al. 1975. Phys. Rev. Lett. 35: 196–199. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Boymond, J.P. et al. 1974. Phys. Rev. Lett. 33: 112–115. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Braun-Munzinger, P. and J. Stachel. 2000. Phys. Lett. B 490: 196–202. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Braunschweig, W. et al. (TASSO). 1990. Z. Phys. C 47: 187–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Breidenbach, M., J.I. Friedman, H.W. Kendall, E.D. Bloom, D.H. Coward, H. DeStabler, J. Drees, L. W. Mo and R. E. Taylor. 1969. Phys. Rev. Lett. 23: 935–939. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Brodsky, S.J. and S.D. Drell. 1970. Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 20: 147–194. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bromberg, C., G.C. Fox et al. (E260). 1978. Nucl. Phys. B 134: 189–241. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Burns, R., K. Goulianos, E. Hyman, L. Lederman, W. Lee, N. Mistry, J. Rettberg, M. Schwartz, J. Sunderland and G. Danby 1965a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15: 42–45. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Burns, R., K. Goulianos, E. Hyman, L. Lederman, W. Lee, N. Mistry, J. Rettberg, M. Schwartz, and J. Sunderland. 1965b. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15: 830–834. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Cahalan, R.F., K.A. Geer, J. Kogut and L. Susskind. 1975. Phys. Rev. D 11: 1199–1212. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    CCR Collaboration 1973. Proposal for a continuation with Increased Sensitivity of the Search for e± , e+ e- pairs, High pT π±∘ and multiple pion correlations in collisions with high pT , CERN/ISRC/73-13, 14 May 1973. http://cds.cern.ch/record/732024/files/cm-p00048643.pdf
  107. 107.
    CCOR Collaboration 1974. Proposal for a High Sensitivity Search at the ISR For High Mass States Decaying Into Two Electrons, CERN/ISRC/74-56, 25 November 1974. http://cds.cern.ch/record/1004373/files/CM-P00063282.pdf
  108. 108.
    CCRS Collaboration 1973. Addendum 2 to Proposal: Measurement of High Transverse Momentum Charged Particles, CERN/ISRC/72-13/Add. 2, April 1973. http://cds.cern.ch/record/835104/files/CM-P00053349.pdf
  109. 109.
    CERN-Saclay Collaboration 1974. Proposal to Search for Charmed Particles and e+e- Pairs at the ISR, CERN/ISRC/74-55, 25 November 1974. http://cds.cern.ch/record/738399/files/cm-p00047665.pdf
  110. 110.
    Chatrchyan, S. et al. (CMS). 2011a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107: 132001. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chatrchyan, S. et al. (CMS). 2011b. Phys. Rev. C 84: 024906. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chatrchyan, S. et al. (CMS). 2012. Phys. Lett. B 716: 30–61. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chilton, F., A.M. Saperstein and E. Shrauner. 1966. Phys. Rev. 148: 1380–1384. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Christenson, J.H., G.S. Hicks, L.M. Lederman, P.J. Limon, B.G. Pope and E. Zavattini. 1970. Phys. Rev. Lett. 25: 1523–1526. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Clark, A.G. et al. (CSZ). 1978. Nucl. Phys. B 142: 29–52. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Clark, A.G. et al. (CS). 1979. Nucl. Phys. B 160: 397–425. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cleymans,J., H. Oeschler, K. Redlich and S. Wheaton. 2006. Phys. Rev. C 73: 034905. ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cobb, J.H. et al. (BCSY). 1977. Phys. Lett. B 72: 273–277. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Cocconi, G., L.J. Koester, and D.H. Perkins, Technical Report No. UCRL-10022 (1961), Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (unpublished), p. 167, https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4695660/ as cited by (Orear 1964).
  120. 120.
    Collins, J.C. and M.J. Perry. 1975. Phys. Rev. Lett. 34: 1353–1356. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Combridge, B.L., J. Kripfganz and J. Ranft. 1977. Phys. Lett. B 70: 234–238. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Contogouris, A.P., S. Papadopoulos and J. Ralston. 1981. Phys. Lett. B 104: 70–74. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cool, R., L. DiLella, L. Lederman and E. Zavattini. 1969. Intersecting Storage Ring Study Of Dileptons, CERN/ISRC/69-43, 20 June 1969. http://cds.cern.ch/record/1005387/files/CM-P00062888.pdf
  124. 124.
    Cool, R.L. et al. (CCR). Proc. XVI International Conference on High Energy Physics (Chicago-Batavia, 1972). J.D. Jackson and A. Roberts (eds.) (NAL, Batavia, IL, 1973) Vol. 3 p. 317 Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Cooper, F. and G. Frye. 1974. Phys. Rev. D 10: 186–189. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Crease, R.P. 2008. Hist. Stud. Nat. Sci. 38: 535–568. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cronin, J.W. 1977. Proc. 1977 Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies (Hamburg, Germany 25-31 August, 1977), F. Gutbrod (editor) (DESY, Hamburg, 1977) pp. 579–598 Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cutler, R. and D. Sivers. 1978. Phys. Rev. D 17: 196–211. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Danby, G., J.-M. Gaillard, K. Goulianos, L.M. Lederman, N. Mistry, M. Schwartz, and J. Steinberger. 1962. Phys. Rev. Lett. 9: 36–44. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Darriulat, P. et al. 1976a. Nucl. Phys. B 110: 365–379. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Darriulat, P. et al. 1976b. Nucl. Phys. B 107: 429–456. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Darriulat,P. 1980. Large Transverse Momentum Hadronic Processes, CERN-EP/80-16 http://cds.cern.ch/record/133947/files/198004343.pdf
  133. 133.
    Darriulat, P. 2012. 40th Anniversary of the First Proton-Proton Collisions in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), CERN-2012-004, 2012. pp. 63–73. http://cds.cern.ch/record/1456765
  134. 134.
    De Marzo, C. et al. (NA5). 1982. Phys. Lett. B 112: 173–177. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    De Rujula, A. and S.L. Glashow. 1975. Phys. Rev. Lett. 34: 46–49. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Della Negra M. et al. (CCHK). 1977. Nucl. Phys. B 127: 1–42. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Di Lella, L. pp. V-13–V20 in Ref. (Segler et al. 1974). Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Diakonou, M. et al. (AABC). 1979. Phys. Lett. B 87: 292–296. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Djhelyadin, R.I. et al. 1980. Phys. Lett. B 94: 548–550. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Dokshitzer, Yu.L. and D.E. Kharzeev. 2001. Phys. Lett. B 519: 199–206. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Drell, S.D. and J.D. Walecka. 1964. Ann. Phys. (NY) 28: 18–33. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Drell, S.D. and T.-M. Yan. 1970. Phys. Rev. Lett. 25: 316–320. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Drijard, D. et al. (CCHK). 1979. Phys. Lett. B 81: 250–254. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Eichten, E. et al. 1975. Phys. Rev. Lett. 34: 369–372. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Eichten, E. and K. Gottfried. 1977. Phys. Lett. B 66: 286–290. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Evans, L. and P. Bryant (editors). 2008. JINST 3: S08001 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/3/08/S08001.
  147. 147.
    Fabjan, C.W. and N. McCubbin. 2004. Phys. Rep. 403–404: 165–175. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Faessler, M.A. et al. (CHL). 1979. p - α and α - α Collisions in the ISR, Proposal to CERN-ISRC, CERN/ISRC/79-10; ISRC/P101, April 10, 1979. http://cds.cern.ch/record/719842/files/cm-p00048087.pdf
  149. 149.
    Faissler, M.A. 1984. Phys. Repts. 115: 1–91. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Farrar, G.R. and S.C. Frautschi. 1976. Phys. Rev. Lett. 36: 1017–1020. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ferbel, T. and W.R. Molzon. 1984. Rev. Mod. Phys. 56: 181–221. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Feynman, R.P., R.D. Field and G.C. Fox. 1977. Nucl. Phys. B 128: 1–65. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Feynman, R.P., R.D. Field and G.C. Fox. 1978. Phys. Rev. D 18: 3320–3343. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Friedman, J.I. 1991. Rev. Mod. Phys. 63: 615–627. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Fritzsch, H. and P. Minkowski. 1977. Phys. Lett. B 69: 316–320. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fritzsch, H. and M. Gell-Mann, Proc. XVI International Conference on High Energy Physics (Chicago-Batavia, 1972). J.D. Jackson and A. Roberts (eds.) (NAL, Batavia, IL, 1973) Vol. 2 pp. 135–165 Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fritzsch, H., M. Gell-Mann and H. Leutwyler. 1973. Phys. Lett. B 47: 365–368. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gell-Mann, M. 1964. Phys. Lett. 8: 214–215. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Gell-Mann, M. 2013. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 28: 1330016. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Glashow, S.L., J. Iliopoulos and L. Maiani. 1970. Phys. Rev. D 2: 1285–1292. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Goldhaber, M., L. Grodzins and A.W. Sunyar. 1958. Phys. Rev. 109: 1015–1017. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Goldhaber, G. et al. 1976. Phys. Rev. Lett. 37: 255–259. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Greenberg, O.W. 1964. Phys. Rev. Lett. 13: 598–602. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gross, D.J. and F. Wilczek. 1973. Phys. Rev. Lett. 30: 1343–1346. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
  166. 166.
    Harrison, M., T. Ludlam and S. Ozaki (eds.). 2003. “The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Project: RHIC and its Detectors”, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 499: 235–880. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Herb, S.W. et al. (CFS). 1977. Phys. Rev. Lett. 39: 252–255. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Hinchliffe, I. and C.H. Llewellyn Smith. 1976a. Phys. Lett. B 61: 472–476. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hinchliffe, I. and C.H. Llewellyn Smith. 1976b. Nucl. Phys. B 114: 45–60 1976b. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hom, D.C. et al. (CFS). 1976a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 36: 1236–1239. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Hom, D.C. et al. (CFS). 1976b. Phys. Rev. Lett. 37: 1374–1377. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jacob, M. and P.V. Landshoff. 1976. Nucl. Phys. B 113: 395–412. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jacob, M. and P.V. Landshoff. 1978. Phys. Repts. 48: 285–350. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Jacob, M. Proc. EPS International Conference on High Energy Physics (Geneva, 27 June-4 July 1979) (CERN, Geneva, SZ, 1980) pp. 473–522. http://inspirehep.net/record/141851/files/19399-473-522.pdf
  175. 175.
    Jacob, M. 1984. HISTORY OF ISR PHYSICS, Ref.TH.3807-CERN http://cds.cern.ch/record/150654/files/CM-P00062099.pdf
  176. 176.
    Jane, M.R. et al. 1975. Phys. Lett. B 59: 103–105. Erratum 1978. Phys. Lett. B 73: 503 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Jarlskog, C. and H. Pilkuhn. 1967. Nucl. Phys. B1: 264–268. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Koch, P., B. Müller and J. Rafelski. 1986. Phys. Repts. 142: 167–262. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kourkoumelis, C. et al. (ABCS). 1979a. Phys. Lett. B 84: 271–276. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kourkoumelis, C. et al. (ABCS). 1979b. Phys. Lett. B 86: 391–394. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kourkoumelis, C. et al. (ABCS). 1979c. Nucl. Phys. B 158: 39–56. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kourkoumelis, C. et al. (ABCSY). 1980a. Phys. Lett. B 91: 481–486. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Kourkoumelis, C. et al. (ABCSY). 1980b. Phys. Lett. B 91: 475–480. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kovtun, P.K., D.T. Son and A.O. Starinets. 2005. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94: 111601. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kroll, N.M. and W. Wada. 1955. Phys. Rev. 98: 1355–1359. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lamb, R.C., R.A. Lundy, T.B. Novey, D.D. Yovanovitch, M.L. Good, R. Hartung, M.W. Peters and A. Subramanian. 1965. Phys. Rev. Lett. 15: 800–802. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Landsberg, L.G. 1985. Phys. Repts. 128: 301–376. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Landshoff, P.V. and J.C. Polkinghorne. 1978. Phys. Rev. 18: 3344–3352. ADSGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lebedev, V. et al. pp. 328–335 in Ref. (Cool et al. 1973). Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lederman, L.M., W. Lee, J. Appel, M. Tannenbaum, L. Read, J. Sculli, T. White and T. Yamanouchi, Study of Lepton Pairs From Proton-Nuclear Interactions; Search For Intermediate Bosons and Lee-Wick Structure, June 17, 1970, NAL PROPOSAL No. 70 http://lss.fnal.gov/archive/test-proposal/0000/fermilab-proposal-0070.pdf.
  191. 191.
    Lederman, L.M. p. V-55 in Ref. (Segler et al. 1974). Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lederman, L.M. 1975. Proc. 1975 International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies (Stanford University, 21-27 August,1975) W.T. Kirk (editor) (SLAC, Stanford CA, 1975) pp. 265–316 Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Lederman, L.M. 1976. Phys. Repts. 26: 149–181. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lederman, L. and J. Weneser (eds.) Report of the Workshop on BeV/Nucleon Collisions of Heavy Ions–How and Why (Bear Mountain, NY, 29 November–1 December, 1974) (BNL 50445, Upton, NY, 1975) Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Lee, T.D. 1961. CERN SEMINARS 1961, CERN 61-30, 1961, pp. 65–72. http://cds.cern.ch/record/285663/files/CERN-61-30.pdf
  196. 196.
    Lee, T.D. et al. 2005. Nucl. Phys. A 750: 1–171. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Lee, T.D. and C.N. Yang. 1960. Phys. Rev. 119: 1410–1419. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Levin, E.M. and MG. Ryskin 1975. Sov. Phys.-JETP 42: 783–789. http://www.jetp.ac.ru/cgi-bin/dn/e_042_05_0783.pdf ADSGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Matsui, T. 1987. “On the Charm Production in Ultra-relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions”, Proc. 2nd Workshop on Experiments and detectors for RHIC, Berkeley, CA, May 1987, eds. H.G. Ritter, A. Shor, LBL-24604. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5302565
  200. 200.
    Matsui, T. and H. Satz. 1986. Phys. Lett. B 17: 416–422. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Moore, G.D. and D. Teaney. 2005. Phys. Rev. C 71: 064904. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Nearing, J. 1963. Phys. Rev. 132: 2323–2324. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Nearing, J. 1964. Phys. Rev. 135: AB2. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Orear, J. 1964. Phys. Rev. Lett. 12: 112–113. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Owens, J.F., E. Reya and M. Glück. 1978. Phys. Rev. 18: 1501–1514 ADSGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Owens, J.F. and J.D. Kimel. 1978. Phys. Rev. 18: 3313–3319. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Owens, J.F. 1987. Rev. Mod. Phys. 59: 465–503. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Palmer, R.B., E.J. Bleser et al. 1985. Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 235: 435–463. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Panofsky, W.K.H. 1968. Proc. 14th International Conference on High Energy Physics, Vienna, Austria, 28 Aug.–5 Sept, 1968. J. Prentki and J. Steinberger (eds.) (CERN, Geneva, 1968), pp. 23–39 Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Perkins, D.H. Proc. XVI International Conference on High Energy Physics, Chicago-Batavia, 1972. J.D. Jackson and A. Roberts (eds.) (NAL, Batavia, IL, 1973) Vol. 4 pp. 189–247 Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Piccioni, O., R. Good, W. Melhop and R. Swanson. 1966. Proc. XII International Conference on High Energy Physics (Dubna, 1964). Ya.A. Smorodinskii (editor-in-chief) (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1966), Vol. 2, p. 32–36. http://inspirehep.net/record/1376999/files/C64-08-05-p032.pdf
  212. 212.
    Politzer, H.D. 1973. Phys. Rev. Lett. 30: 1346–1349. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pontecorvo, B. 1959. JETP 37: 1751–1757. Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Pope, B.G. et al. (CCOR). 1978. AIP Conf. Proc. 43: 239–242. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Pretzl, K., C. Favuzzi et al. (NA5) Proc. XX International Conference on High Energy Physics (Madison, WI 1980). L. Durand and L.G. Pondrom (editors) (AIP, New York, 1980), pp. 435–468. http://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/1.32442
  216. 216.
    Prino, F. et al. (NA50) Proc. XXX International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics (ISMD2000), Tihany, Hungary, October 9–15, 2000, T. Csorgo, S. Hegy and W. Kittel (eds.) (World Scientific, New Jersey, 2001). https://arxiv.org/pdf/hep-ex/0101052.pdf.
  217. 217.
    Rak, J. and M.J. Tannenbaum. 2013. High pT Physics in the Heavy Ion Era (Cambridge University Press, 2013) Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Repellin, J.-P. 1982 (UA2) Proc. 21st International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP), Paris, France, July 26–31, 1982 P. Petiau and M. Porneuf (eds.) J. Phys. Colloques. 43: C3-571–C3-578.  https://doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1982376 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Russell, J.J., R.C. Sah, M.J. Tannenbaum, W.E. Cleland, D.G. Ryan and D.G. Stairs. 1971. Phys. Rev. Lett. 26: 46–50. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Russo, A. 1996. History of CERN, Volume 3, J. Krige (editor) (North Holland, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 97–170 Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Russo, A. 1996a. pp. 151–152 in Ref. (Russo 1996). Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Satz, H. and Y. Zarmi. 1976. Lett. Nuovo Cim. 15: 421–428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Satz, H. 2000. Rep. Prog. Phys. 63: 1511–1574. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Satz, H. 2013. Adv. High Energy Phys. 2013 242918. http://inspirehep.net/record/1223872/files/242918.a.pdf. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Schwartz, M. 1960. Phys. Rev. Lett. 4: 306–307. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Segler, S. et al. (CCRS). Proc. XVII International Conference on High Energy Physics (London, 1974). J.R. Smith (editor) (Rutherford Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, UK, 1974), pp. V-41–V-43 Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Shuryak, E.V. 1980. Phys. Repts. 61: 71–158. ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Soltz, R.A., C. DeTar, F. Karsch, S. Mukherjee and P. Vranas. 2015. Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 65: 379–402. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 1977. p. 598 in Ref. (Cronin 1977). Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 1982. (CCOR) pp. C3-134–C3-139 in Ref. (Repellin 1982)  https://doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1982331
  231. 231.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. et al. 1985. (BCMOR) Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions, Helsinki, Finland, June 17–21, 1984 , K. Kajantie (editor) Lecture Notes in Physics 221 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1985) https://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6174559
  232. 232.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 1989. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 4: 3377–3476. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 1996. Heavy Ion Phys. 4: 139–148. Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 2006. Rep. Prog. Phys. 69: 2005–2059. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 2008. Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 17: 771–801. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 2014. Proceedings of the International School of Subnuclear Physics, ISSP 2014, 52nd Course, Erice, Sicily, Italy, June 24–July 3, 2014 , Antonino Zichichi (editor) The Subnuclear Series: Volume 52 (World Scientific, Singapore, 2017). arXiv:1504.02771
  237. 237.
    Tannenbaum, M.J. 2016. Eur. Phys. J. H 41: 303–325. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Tavernier, S.P.K. 1987. Rep. Prog. Phys. 50: 1439–1489. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Thews, R.L., M. Schroedter and J. Rafelski. 2001. Phys. Rev. C 63: 054905. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Vogt, R., M. Cacciari and P. Nason. 2006. Nucl. Phys. A 774: 661–664. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Wolf, G. pp. C3-525–C3-568 in Ref. (Repellin 1982)  https://doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1982374
  242. 242.
    Yamaguchi, Y. 1966. Nuovo Cimento A43: 193–199. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Zichichi, A. Comment in discussion (Piccioni et al. 1966) p. 35 Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Zhao, X. and R. Rapp. 2008. Phys. Lett. B 664: 253–257. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Zweig, G. 2010. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 25: 3863–3877. ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics Department, Brookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

Personalised recommendations