The European Physical Journal E

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 375–377 | Cite as

Effect of atmosphere on reductions in the glass transition of thin polystyrene films

  • A. N. Raegen
  • M. V. Massa
  • J. A. Forrest
  • K. Dalnoki-Veress
Regular Article

Abstract

We have used nulling ellipsometry to measure the glass transition temperature, Tg , of thin films of polystyrene in ambient, dry nitrogen, and vacuum environments. For all environments, the measured Tg values decrease with decreasing film thickness in a way that is quantitatively similar to previously reported studies in ambient conditions. These results provide strong reinforcement of previous conclusions that such reduced Tg values are an intrinsic property of the confined material. Furthermore, the results are in contrast to recent reports which suggest that the Tg reductions measured by many researchers are the results of artifacts (i.e. degradation of the polymer due to annealing in ambient conditions, or moisture content).

PACS

36.20.-r Macromolecules and polymer molecules 64.70.pj Polymers 68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J.L. Keddie, R.A.L. Jones, R.A. Cory, Europhys. Lett. 27, 59 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.A. Forrest, K. Dalnoki-Veress, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 94, 167 (2001).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Alcoutlabi, G.B. McKenna, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, R461 (2005).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.B. Roth, J.R. Dutcher, J. Electroanal. Chem. 584, 13 (2005).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Serghei, H. Huth, M. Schellengerger, C. Schick, F. Kremer, Phys. Rev. E 71, 061801 (2005).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.Y. Efremov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 043903 (2008).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Serghei, H. Huth, C. Schick, F. Kremer, Macromolecules 41, 3636 (2008).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.M.A. Azzam, N.M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1977).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z. Fakhraai, J.A. Forrest, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 025701 (2005).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Raegen
    • 1
  • M. V. Massa
    • 1
  • J. A. Forrest
    • 2
  • K. Dalnoki-Veress
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics & Astronomy and the Brockhouse Institute for Materials ResearchMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics InstituteUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations