Electroconvection in nematics above the splay Fréedericksz transition
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We present a basic model for an instability leading to a novel type of electroconvection patterns observed above the splay Fréedericksz transition in nematics. Such patterns, with wave vector perpendicular to the director easy axis, are found in planar sandwich cells under crossed polarizers, they do not produce shadowgraph images at onset. An adaptation of the classical Carr Helfrich mechanism is introduced. The ground state is a tilted director field uniform in the cell plane. The proposed mechanism destabilizes this director field and leads to a structure with modulated out-of-plane (twist) deformations. Experimental confirmation is provided by polarizing microscopy. All experimental observations are qualitatively explained with the proposed model.
PACS.05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos 47.20.-k Flow instabilities 61.30.-v Liquid crystals
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