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A dense Bose fluid at zero temperature: condensation and clusters in liquid 4He

  • Vladimir I. KruglovEmail author
  • Matthew J. Collett
Regular Article

Abstract

We present a full set of wave equations describing a dense Bose fluid, applicable both to non-ideal gases and to liquid 4He. The phonon spectrum in liquid 4He is found and the fraction of condensed particles is calculated at zero temperature for a wide range of densities. The theory also yields the ground-state energy for the quantum liquid 4He in agreement to high accuracy with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data at low pressure. A new and essential point is the the introduction of a momentum space cutoff at the speed of the second sound. We also present the derivation of a generalized Hartree-Fock equation describing roton clusters in low temperature liquid 4He, allowing us to confirm that, at low enough temperatures and for a wide range of pressures, the stable clusters consist of 13 bound atoms.

Keywords

Cold Matter and Quantum Gas 

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Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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