A binary mixture of spin-1 atoms in a weak magnetic field: the effect of quadratic Zeeman energy
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The effect of quadratic Zeeman energy (q) is studied for a binary mixture of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates with antiferromagnetic spin interactions in a weak magnetic field. Despite the low strength of the magnetic field, the ground states contain some new phases due to the competition of q, p (linear Zeeman energy) and spin interactions. The phase diagram in the (q, p) plane is constructed and the stability for different phases is discussed in a low-energy limit. The elementary excitations of a special phase is calculated by Bogoliubov theory, showing the different effects of q and p.