Advertisement

Electron impact fragmentation of thymine: partial ionization cross sections for positive fragments

  • Peter J.M. van der BurgtEmail author
  • Francis Mahon
  • Gerard Barrett
  • Marcin L. Gradziel
Regular Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical issue: Electron and Positron Induced Processes

Abstract

We have measured mass spectra for positive ions for low-energy electron impact on thymine using a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Using computer controlled data acquisition, mass spectra have been acquired for electron impact energies up to 100 eV in steps of 0.5 eV. Ion yield curves for most of the fragment ions have been determined by fitting groups of adjacent peaks in the mass spectra with sequences of normalized Gaussians. The ion yield curves have been normalized by comparing the sum of the ion yields to the average of calculated total ionization cross sections. Appearance energies have been determined. The nearly equal appearance energies of 83 u and 55 u observed in the present work strongly indicate that near threshold the 55 u ion is formed directly by the breakage of two bonds in the ring, rather than from a successive loss of HNCO and CO from the parent ion. Likewise 54 u is not formed by CO loss from 82 u. The appearance energies are in a number of cases consistent with the loss of one or more hydrogen atoms from a heavier fragment, but 70 u is not formed by hydrogen loss from 71 u.

Keywords

Thymine Ionization Cross Section HNCO Appearance Energy Successive Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Hotop, M.-W. Ruf, M. Allan, I.I. Fabrikant, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. 49, 85 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Balog, J. Langer, S. Gohlke, M. Stano, H. Abdoul-Carime, E. Illenberger, Int. J. Mass. Spectrom. 233, 267 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Sanche, Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 367 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.W. McConkey, C.P. Malone, P.V. Johnson, C. Winstead, V. McKoy, I. Kanik, Phys. Rep. 466, 1 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    I. Baccarelli, I. Bald, F.A. Gianturco, E. Illenberger, J. Kopyra, Phys. Rep. 508, 1 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M. Rice, G.O. Dudek, M. Barber, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87, 4569 (1965) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Ulrich, R. Teoule, R. Massot, A. Cornu, Org. Mass Spectrom. 2, 1183 (1969) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Imhoff, Z. Deng, M.A. Huels, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 245, 68 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Abouaf, J. Pommier, H. Dunet, Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 486 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Dal Cappello, I. Charpentier, S. Houamer, P.A. Hervieux, M.F. Ruiz-Lopez, A. Mansouri, A.C. Roy, J. Phys. B 45, 175205 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Dal Cappello, Z. Rezkallah, S. Houamer, I. Charpentier, A.C. Roy, P.A. Hervieux, M.F. Ruiz-Lopez, Eur. Phys. J. D 67, 117 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.A. Huels, I. Hahndorf, E. Illenberger, L. Sanche J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1309 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Denifl, S. Ptasińska, M. Cingel, S. Matejcik, P. Scheier, T.D. Märk, Chem. Phys. Lett. 377, 47 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Denifl, S. Ptasińska, M. Probst, J. Hruašák, P. Scheier, T.D. Märk, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 6562 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Abouaf, H. Dunet, Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 405 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Abdoul-Carime, S. Gohlke, E. Illenberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 168103 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Ptasińska, S. Denifl, V. Grill, T.D. Märk, P. Scheier, S. Gohlke, M.A. Huels, E. Illenberger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 1647 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Ptasińska, S. Denifl, P.L. Scheier, E. Illenberger, T.D. Märk, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 6941 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Ptasińska, S. Denifl, B. Mróz, M. Probst, V. Grill, E. Illenberger, P. Scheier, T.D. Märk, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124302 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Ferreira da Silva, C. Matias, D. Almeida, G. García, O. Ingólfsson, H.D. Flosadóttir, B. Ómarsson, S. Ptasinska, B. Puschnigg, P. Scheier, P. Limão-Vieira, S. Denifl, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 24, 1787 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Almeida, D. Kinzel, F. Ferreira da Silva, B. Puschnigg, D. Gschliesser, P. Scheier, S. Denifl, G. García, L. González, P. Limão-Vieira, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 11431 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P.D. Burrow, G.A. Gallup, A.M. Scheer, S. Denifl, S. Ptasinska, T. Märk, P. Scheier, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124310 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    X. Li, M.D. Sevilla, L. Sanche, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19013 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Dora, L. Bryjko, T. van Mourik, J. Tennyson, J. Phys. B 45, 175203 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Improta, G. Scalmani, V. Barone, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 321 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    H.-W. Jochims, M. Schwell, H. Baumgärtel, S. Leach, Chem. Phys. 314, 263 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. Itälä, D.T. Ha, K. Kooser, E. Rachlew, M.A. Huels, E. Kukk, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154316 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. de Vries, R. Hoekstra, R. Morgenstern, T. Schlathölter, Eur. Phys. J. D 24, 161 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. de Vries, R. Hoekstra, R. Morgenstern, T. Schlathölter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 053401 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. de Vries, R. Hoekstra, R. Morgenstern, T. Schlathölter, Phys. Scr. T110, 336 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Schlathölter, R. Hoekstra, R. Morgenstern, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 233, 173 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Schlathölter, F. Alvarado, R. Hoekstra, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 233, 62 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Tabet, S. Eden, S. Feil, H. Abdoul-Carime, B. Farizon, M. Farizon, S. Ouaskit, T.D. Märk, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 292, 53 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.K. Kim, W. Lee, D.R. Herschbach, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7933 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    N.J. Kim, H. Kang, G. Jeong, Y.S. Kim, K.T. Lee, S.K. Kim, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 15 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T. Kagawa, K. Aikawa, F. Sato, Y. Kato, T. Iida, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 122, 95 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T. Schlathölter, F. Alvarado, S. Bari, A. Lecointre, R. Hoekstra, V. Bernigaud, B. Manil, J. Rangama, B. Huber, ChemPhysChem 7, 2339 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    F. Zappa, S. Denifl, I. Mähr, J. Lecointre, F. Rondino, O. Echt, T.D. Märk, P. Scheier, Eur. Phys. J. D 43, 117 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G. Barrett, P.J.M. van der Burgt, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 101, 012008 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Y. Itikawa, N. Mason, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 34, 1 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Denifl, B. Sonnweber, G. Hanel, P. Scheier, T.D. Märk, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 238, 47 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    I.I. Shafranyosh, M.I. Sukhoviya, M.I. Shafranyosh, L.L. Shimon, Tech. Phys. 53, 1536 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ph. Bernhardt, H.G. Paretzke, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 223-224, 599 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Możejko, L. Sanche, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 42, 201 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Champion, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 184306 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Vinodkumar, Ch. Limbachiya, M. Barot, M. Swadia, A. Barot, J. Mass Spectrom. 339-340, 16 (2013) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W.M. Huo, C.E. Dateo, G.D. Fletcher, NASA Technical Report NAS-06-009, 2006 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A. Peudon, S. Edel, M. Terrissol, Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 122, 128 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    P.J.M. van der Burgt, Eur. Phys. J. D 68, 135 (2014) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J.-C. Fan, Z.-C. Shang, J. Liang, X.-H. Liu, H. Jin, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 939, 106 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A.B. Trofimov, J. Schirmer, V.B. Kobychev, A.W. Potts, D.M.P. Holland, L. Karlsson, J. Phys. B 39, 305 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. González-Vázquez, L. González, E. Samoylova, T. Schultz, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11, 3927 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J.M. van der Burgt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francis Mahon
    • 1
  • Gerard Barrett
    • 1
  • Marcin L. Gradziel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental PhysicsNational University of Ireland MaynoothCo. KildareIreland

Personalised recommendations