A sum rule for charged elementary particles

  • Gerd Leuchs
  • Luis L. Sánchez-SotoEmail author
Open Access
Regular Article


There may be a link between the quantum properties of the vacuum and the parameters describing the properties of light propagation, culminating in a sum over all types of elementary particles existing in Nature weighted only by their squared charges and independent of their masses. The estimate for that sum is of the order of 100.


Quantum Optics 


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Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für die Physik des LichtsErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Department für PhysikUniversität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Departamento de Óptica, Facultad de FísicaUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpain

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