The European Physical Journal D

, Volume 64, Issue 2–3, pp 427–435 | Cite as

Growth and properties of Ti-Cu films with respect to plasma parameters in dual-magnetron sputtering discharges

  • V. Stranak
  • H. Wulff
  • R. Bogdanowicz
  • S. Drache
  • Z. Hubicka
  • M. Cada
  • M. Tichy
  • R. Hippler
Regular Article Plasma Physics

Abstract

Properties of different methods of magnetron sputtering (dc-MS, dual-MS and dual-HiPIMS) are studied and compared with respect to intermetallic Ti-Cu film formation. The quality and features of thin films are strongly influenced by the energy of incoming particles. The ion velocity distribution functions (IVDFs) were measured by time-resolved retarding field analyzer (RFA) in the substrate position. Thin films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray reflectometry (XR). Properties and crystallography of Ti-Cu films are discussed as a function of ion energy which is affected by the mode of sputtering. It was found that IVDFs measured in pulsed discharges exhibit double-peak distribution. The IVDFs reach the maximum at ion energies about  ~8 eV. The ion saturated current is highest in dual-HiPIMS discharge (~5 μA/cm2) and is mostly represented by Cu+ and Ar+ ions. The mode of sputtering influences chemical composition and film formation. The copper forms polycrystalline fcc-phase while much smaller Ti particles enwraps the copper crystallites or are part of a solid solution.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F. Heidenau, F. Stenzel, G. Ziegler, Key Engineering Materials 192-195, 87 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Borkow, J. Gabbay, Curr. Med. Chem. 12-18, 2163 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Grass, C. Rensing, M. Solioz, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77, 1541 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Borkow, J. Gabbay, Curr. Med. Chem. 3, 272 (2009) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Borkow, J. Gabbay, Wounds 22, 301 (2010) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.A. Wassall, M. Santin, C. Isalberti, M. Cannas, S.P. Denyer, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 36, 325 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Bosetti, A. Masse, E. Tobin, M. Cannas, Biomaterials 23, 887 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. Heidenau, W. Mittelmeier, R. Detsch, M. Haenle, F. Stenzel, G. Ziegler, H.A. Gollwitzer, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 16, 883 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W.E. Krull, R.W. Newman, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 3, 519 (1970) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.L. Murry, Bull. Alloy Phase Diag. 4, 81 (1983) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. Stranak, H. Wulff, H. Rebl, C. Zietz, K. Arndt, R. Bogdanowicz, B. Nebe, R. Bader, A. Podbielski, Z. Hubicka, R. Hippler, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 31, 1512 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Ellmer, in Low Temperature Plasmas, edited by R. Hippler, H. Kersten, M. Schmidt, K.H. Schoenbach (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2009), Vol. 2, p. 675 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. Stranak, M. Cada, Z. Hubicka, M. Tichy, R. Hippler, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 043305 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Musil, D. Herman, J. Sicha, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 24, 521 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. Stranak, M. Quaas, H. Wulff, Z. Hubicka, S. Wrehde, M. Tichy, R. Hippler, J. Phys. D 41, 055202 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. Stranak et al., J. Phys. D 42, 105204 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Stranak, M. Quaas, R. Bogdanowicz, H. Steffen, H. Wulff, Z. Hubicka, M. Tichy, R. Hippler, J. Phys. 43, 285203 (2010) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.W. Bradley, T. Welzel, J. Phys. 42, 093001 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Christou, Z.H. Barber, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18, 2897 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Window, J. Savvides, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 4, 196 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Richter, T. Welzel, R. Kleinhempel, T. Dunger, T. Knoth, M. Dimer, F. Milde, Surf. Coat. Technol. 204, 845 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.A. Voronin, G.C.B. Clarke, M. Cada, P.J. Kelly, J.W. Bradley, Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 1872 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    V. Kouznetsov, K. Macak, J.M. Schneider, U. Helmersson, I. Petrov, Surf. Coat. Technol. 122, 293 (2006) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.T. Gudmundsson, J. Alami, U. Helmersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3427 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    U. Helmersson, M. Lattemann, J. Bohlmark, A.P. Ehiasarian, J.T. Gudmundsson, Thin Solid Films 513, 1 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Sarakinos, J. Alami, S. Konstantinidis, Surf. Coat. Technol. 204, 1661 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.P. Ehiasarian, J. Anderson, A. Anders, J. Phys. D 43, 275204 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    P. Kudlacek, J. Vlcek, K. Burcalova, J. Lukas, Plasma Source. Sci. Technol. 17, 025010 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.T. Gudmundsson, J. Alami, U. Helmersson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3427 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Bohlmark et al., Thin Solid Films 515, 1522 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Mishra, G. Clarke, P. Kelly, J.W. Bradley, Plasma Process. Polym. 6, S610 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Vlcek, P. Kudlacek, K. Burcalova, J. Musil, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25, 42 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Vlcek, P. Kudlacek, K. Burcalova, J. Musil, Europhys. Lett. 77 45002, (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. Lundin, P. Larsson, E. Wallin, M. Lattemann, N. Brenning, U. Helmersson, Plasma Sci. Technol. 17, 035021 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A.P. Ehiasarian, A. Vetushka, A. Hecimovic, S. Konstantinidis, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083305 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. Burcalova, A. Hecimovic, A.P. Ehiasarian, J. Phys. D 41, 115306 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Hecimovic, A.P. Ehiasarian, J. Phys. D 42, 135209 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Vlcek, A.D. Pajdarova, J. Musil, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 44, 426 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Anders, J. Andersson, A. Ehiasarian, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113303 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    V. Stranak, S. Drache, M. Cada, Z. Hubicka, M. Tichy, R. Hippler, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 237 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Musil, P. Baroch, J. Vlcek, K.H. Nam, J.G. Han, Thin Solid Films 475, 208 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Baroch, J. Musil, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 1412 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Aijaz, D. Lundin, P. Larsson, U. Helmersson, Surf. Coat. Technol. 200, 2165 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. Bogaerts et al., J. Phys. D 42, 1940018 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    V. Stranak et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 201, 2512 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C. Hayden, D. Gahan, M.B. Hopkins, Plasma Source. Sci. Technol. 18, 025018 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    D. Gahan, B. Dolinaj, M.B. Hopkins, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 033502 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Bohm, J. Perin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 31 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Baloniak, R. Reuter, Ch. Flotgen, A. Keudell, J. Phys. D 43, 055203 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K. Ellmer, R. Wendt, K. Wiesemann, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 223-224, 679 (2002) Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    S.G. Ingram, N.St.J. Braithwaite, J. Phys. D 21, 1496 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. Stranak et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 48, 503 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Wulff, H. Steffen, Characterisation of thin films, in: Low temperature plasma physics, edited by R. Hippler, H. Kersten, M. Schmidt, K.-H. Schoenbach (Wiley-VCH, Berlin, 2008), p. 329 Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    P. Virostko, Z. Hubicka, M. Cada, M. Tichy, J. Phys. D 43, 124019 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Y. Yamamura, H. Tawara, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 62, 149 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    V.I. Demidov, S.V. Ratynskaia, K. Rypdal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 3409 (2022) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Sato, S. Sato, K. Tamura, T. Okuwaki, Br. Ceram. Trans. J. 91, 117 (1992) Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. Quass, H. Wulff, O. Ivanova, C.A. Helm, Surf. Interface Anal. 40, 552 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    I.K. Suh, H. Ohata, Y. Waseda, J. Mater. Sci. 23, 757 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Stranak
    • 1
  • H. Wulff
    • 1
  • R. Bogdanowicz
    • 1
  • S. Drache
    • 1
  • Z. Hubicka
    • 2
  • M. Cada
    • 2
  • M. Tichy
    • 3
  • R. Hippler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für PhysikErnst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.Institute of Physics v. v. i., Academy of Science of the Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.Faculty of Mathematics and PhysicsCharles University in PraguePragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations