Advertisement

Final results from phase II of the Mainz neutrino mass searchin tritium \({\beta}\) decay

  • Ch Kraus
  • B. Bornschein
  • L. Bornschein
  • J. Bonn
  • B. Flatt
  • A. Kovalik
  • B. Ostrick
  • E. W. OttenEmail author
  • J. P. Schall
  • Th Thümmler
  • Ch Weinheimer
experimental physics

Abstract.

This paper reports on the improved Mainz experiment on tritium \(\beta\) spectroscopy which yields a 10 times higher signal to background ratio than before. The main experimental effects and systematic uncertainties have been investigated in side experiments, and possible error sources have been eliminated. Extensive data taking took place in the years 1997 to 2001. A residual analysis of the data sets yields for the square of the electron antineutrino mass the final result of \(m^2(\nu_e) = (-0.6 \pm 2.2_{\mathrm{{stat}}} \pm 2.1_{\mathrm{{syst}}})\) eV2/c4. We derive an upper limit of \(m(\nu_e)\leq 2.3\) eV/c2 at 95% confidence level for the mass itself.

Keywords

Elementary Particle Quantum Field Theory Confidence Level Tritium High Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S. Fukuda and the Superkamiokande Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1562 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Davis, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 48, 284 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.B. Smy and the Superkamiokande Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 118, 25 (2003)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.T. Cleveland et al. , Astrophys. J. 496, 505 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.A. Kirsten and the GNO Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 118, 33 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V.N. Garvin and the SAGE Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 118, 39 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.L. Hallin and the SNO Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 118, 3 (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Q.R. Ahmad et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 011301 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Eguchi and the KamLAND Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 021802 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia, Y. Nir, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 345 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, A. Dietz, H.L. Harney, I.V. Krivosheina, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 16, 2409 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, I.V. Krivosheina, A. Dietz, O. Chkvorets, Phys. Lett. B 586, 198 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.N. Spergel et al. , astro-ph0302209 (2003), Astrophys. J. (Suppl.) 148, 175 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Hannestad, JCAP 0305, 004 (2003), astro-ph/ 0303076 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V. Barger, D. Marfatia, A. Regre, hep-ph0312065 v2 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.W. Allen, A.C. Fabian, S.L. Fridle, astro-ph0306386 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.G.H. Robertson, D.A. Knapp, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 38, 185 (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Holzschuh, Rep. Proc. Phys. 55, 1035 (1992)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.F. Wilkerson, R.G.H. Robertson, in Current Aspects Of Neutrino Physics, edited by D.O. Caldwell (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 2001), p. 39Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ch. Weinheimer, in Neutrino Mass, edited by G. Altarelli and K. Winter, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 190, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany 2003), p. 25Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Picard, H. Backe, H. Barth, J. Bonn, B. Degen, Th. Edling, R. Haid, A. Hermanni, P. Leiderer, Th. Loeken, A. Molz, R.B. Moore, A. Osipowicz, E.W. Otten, M. Przyrembel, M. Steininger, Ch. Weinheimer, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 63, 345 (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    V.M. Lobashev, P.E. Spivac, Phys. Lett. B 460, 3305 (1985)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.I. Belesev et al. , Phys. Lett. B 350, 263 (1995)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Christian Weinheimer, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (1993)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ch. Weinheimer, M. Przyrembel, H. Backe, H. Barth, J. Bonn, B. Degen, Th. Edling, H. Fischer, L. Fleischmann, J.U. Grooß, R. Haid, A. Hermanni, G. Kube, P. Leiderer, Th. Loeken, A. Molz, R.B. Moore, A. Osipowicz, E.W. Otten, A. Picard, M. Schrader, M. Steininger, Phys. Lett. B 300, 210 (1993)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    H. Backe, H. Barth, A. Beile, J. Bonn, B. Degen, L. Fleischmann, M. Gundlach, E.W. Otten, M. Przyrembel, Ch. Weinheimer in Proceedings 17. International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics, Helsinki, Finnland, June 1996 (World Scientific, Singapore), p. 259Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ch. Weinheimer, B. Degen, A. Bleile, J. Bonn, L. Bornschein, O. Kazachenko, A. Kovalik, E.W. Otten, Phys. Lett. B 460, 219 (1999)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    V.M. Lobashev et al. , Phys. Lett. B 460, 227 (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Bonn, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, L. Fickinger, B. Flatt, O. Kazachenko, A. Kovalik, Ch. Kraus, E.W. Otten, J.P. Schall, H. Ulrich, Ch. Weinheimer, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.) 91, 273 (2001)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R.S. Van Dyck, Jr., D.L. Farnham, P.B. Schwinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 2888 (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.J. Simpson, Phys. Rev. D 23, 64 (1981)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.W. Repco, C.E. Wu, Phys. Rev. C 28, 2433 (1983)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Gardner, V. Bernard, U.-G. Meißner, Phys. Lett. B 598, 188 (2004)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G.J. Stephenson, T. Goldman, Phys. Lett. B 440, 89 (1998)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Particle Data Group, Phys. Rev. D 66, 321 (2002)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Christine Kraus, Diploma Thesis, Mainz University (2000)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    O. Fackler, B. Jeziorski, W. Kolos, H.J. Monkhorst, K. Szalewicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1388 (1985)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Saenz, S. Jonsell, P. Froehlich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 242 (2000)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. Kolos et al. , Phys. Rev. A 37, 2297 (1988)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    E.W. Otten, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 32, 153 (1994)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Picard, H. Backe, J. Bonn, B. Degen, R. Haid, A. Hermanni, P. Leiderer, A. Osipowicz, E.W. Otten, M. Przyrembel, M. Schrader, M. Steininger, Ch. Weinheimer, Z. Phys. A 342, 71 (1992)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Beate Bornschein, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (2000)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lutz Bornschein, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (2002)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Christine Kraus, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (2004)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lars Fleischmann, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (1998)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    L. Fleischmann, J. Bonn, B. Degen, M. Przyrembel, E.W. Otten, Ch. Weinheimer, P. Leiderer, J. Low Temp. Phys. 119, 615 (2000)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    L. Fleischmann, J. Bonn, B. Bornschein, P. Leiderer, M. Przyrembel, Ch. Weinheimer, A. Saenz, Eur. Phys. J. B 16, 521 (2000)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    V.N. Aseev, A.I. Belesev, A.I. Berlev, E.V. Geraskin, O.V. Kazachenko, Yu.E. Kuznetsov, V.M. Lobashev, R.P. Ostroumov, N.A. Titov, S.V. Zadorozhny, Yu.I. Zakharov, J. Bonn, B. Bornschein, L. Bornschein, E.W. Otten, M. Przyrembel, Ch. Weinheimer, A. Saenz, Eur. Phys. J. D 10, 39 (2000)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    R. Conradt, U. Albrecht, S. Herminghaus, P. Leiderer, Physica B 194-196, 679 (1994)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oliver Kettig, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (1994)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R.M.A. Azzam, N.M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and polarized light (North Holland Publ. Comp, Amsterdam, Netherlands 1988)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    W. Kolos, L. Wolniewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1426 (1967)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    I. Silvera, Rev. Mod. Phys. 52, 393 (1980)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hermann Fischer, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (1980)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herbert Barth, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (1991)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Daphne Goldmann, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (1995)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Osipowicz et al. , hep-ex0109033Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    V.M. Lobashev, Troitsk, private communicationGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Herbert Barth, Doct. Thesis, Mainz University (1997)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ch. Weinheimer, M. Schrader, J. Bonn, Th. Loeken, H. Backe, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 311, 273 (1993)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Holger Ulrich, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (2000)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jean-Pierre Schall, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (2001)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Beatrix Müller, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (2002)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frank Schwamm, Doct. Thesis, Karlsruhe University (2004)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Thomas Thümmler, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (2002)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Salvadore Sanchez, Dipl. Thesis, Mainz University (2003)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Björn Flatt et al. , to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. Bonn, L. Bornschein, B. Degen, E.W. Otten, Ch. Weinheimer, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 421, 256 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    J. Ciborowski, J. Rembielinski, Eur. Phys. C 8, 157 (1999)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Barth, L. Bornschein, B. Degen, L. Fleischmann, M. Przyrembel, H. Backe, A. Bleile, J. Bonn, D. Goldmann, M. Gundlach, O. Kettig, E.W. Otten, G. Tietze, Ch. Weinheimer, P. Leiderer, O. Kazachenko, A. Kovalik, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 40, 353 (1998)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    B. Bornschein, J. Bonn, L. Bornschein, E.W. Otten, Ch. Weinheimer, J. Low Temp. Phys. 131, 69 (2003)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J.F. Wilkerson et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2023 (1987)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    A. Saenz, Humboldt University, Berlin, private communicationGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    V.M. Lobashev, talk and Proceedings International Conference on Non-Accelerator New Physics, Dubna, 2001Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    V.M. Lobashev, Proceedings 17. International Conference on Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics, Debrecen/Hungary, 2002, Nucl. Phys. A 719, 153c-160c (2003)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R.G.H. Robertson et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 957 (1991)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    E. Holzschuh et al. , Phys. Lett. B 287, 381 (1992)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    H. Kawakami et al. , Phys. Lett. B 256, 105 (1991)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    H.C. Sun et al. , CJNP 15, 261 (1993)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    W. Stoeffl, D.J. Decman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3237 (1995)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    G.J. Feldmann, R.D. Cousins, Phys. Rev. D 57, 3873 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    V.M. Lobashev, Prog. Port, Nucl. Phys. 40, 337 (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ch Kraus
    • 1
  • B. Bornschein
    • 1
  • L. Bornschein
    • 1
  • J. Bonn
    • 1
  • B. Flatt
    • 1
  • A. Kovalik
    • 1
  • B. Ostrick
    • 1
  • E. W. Otten
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. P. Schall
    • 1
  • Th Thümmler
    • 1
  • Ch Weinheimer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Physik der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität MainzMainzGermany
  2. 2.Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen und KernphysikUniversität BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations