# Scattering of kinks of the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model

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## Abstract

We consider the scattering of kinks of the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model, which is obtained from the well-known \(\varphi ^4\) model by means of the deformation procedure. Depending on the initial velocity \(v_\mathrm {in}\) of the colliding kinks, different collision scenarios are realized. There is a critical value \(v_\mathrm {cr}\) of the initial velocity, which separates the regime of reflection (at \(v_\mathrm {in}>v_\mathrm {cr}\)) and that of a complicated interaction (at \(v_\mathrm {in}<v_\mathrm {cr}\)) with kinks’ capture and escape windows. Besides that, at \(v_\mathrm {in}\) below \(v_\mathrm {cr}\) we observe the formation of a bound state of two oscillons, as well as their escape at some values of \(v_\mathrm {in}\).

## 1 Introduction

Topological defects arise in a diversity of contexts in high energy physics, cosmology, quantum and classical field theory, condensed matter, and so on. In high energy physics, they are topologically non-trivial solutions of the equations of motion and possess very interesting properties, which lead to new physical phenomena [1, 2, 3, 4].

Nowadays, the study of the topological defects is a very fast developing area with significant effort being applied to the investigation of domain walls, vortices, strings, as well as embedded topological defects such as a Q-lump on a domain wall and a skyrmion on a domain wall, and so on [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. It is also of interest to mention the so-called Q-balls and similar configurations [18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23], which are charged and protected against decaying into the elementary excitations supported by the respective model. Also, it is worth mentioning other possibilities, such as the study of solitons in fibers [24], bubble collisions in cosmology [25], and localized excitations in nonlinear systems [26].

Models in (1, 1) space-time dimensions are of special interest [2, 3, 27, 28], since the dynamics of some two- or three-dimensional systems can be reduced to the one-dimensional models. For example, a planar domain wall, which separates regions with different minima of the potential, in the direction perpendicular to it can be interpreted as a one-dimensional topological configuration (a kink). On the other hand, the (1, 1)-dimensional field-theoretical models can be a first step towards more complicated higher-dimensional models. Moreover, even in the (1, 1)-dimensional case, topological defects may arise in more complex models with two or more fields, see, e.g., Refs. [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59]. In this more general context, several works have developed analytical solutions, which, in turn, has allowed one to study their stability and to use them in application of interest in physics [29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40]. Other investigations have dealt with the presence of junctions and/or intersections of defects [41, 42, 43, 44], and with issues related to composite-kink internal structures, twinlike models with several fields and scalar triplet on domain walls [45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57], among other issues.

In the case of models described by real scalar fields with standard kinematics, in the (1, 1) space-time the presence of interactions that develop spontaneous symmetry breaking in general leads to localized topological structures having the kinklike profile. The interactions of these one-dimensional topological structures with each other and with spatial inhomogeneities (impurities) have attracted the attention of physicists and mathematicians for a long time; see, e.g., Ref. [27, 28]. The first studies on this subject date back to the 1970s and 1980s [60, 61, 62]. Nevertheless, forty years later we see that it is still an actively developing area with many new applications. Many important results have been obtained by means of the numerical simulation, which is one of the most powerful tools for studying the subject. In particular, resonance phenomena – escape windows and quasi-resonances – were found in the kink-antikink scattering process. A broad class of (1, 1)-dimensional models with polynomial potentials such as the \(\varphi ^4\), \(\varphi ^6\), \(\varphi ^8\) models, and those with higher degree polynomial self-interaction has been considered [62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76]. One should also mention the new results on the long-range interaction between kinks [74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79]. Other models with non-polynomial potentials are also being discussed in the literature. For example, the modified sine-Gordon [80], the double sine-Gordon [81, 82, 83], and a variety of models which can be obtained using the deformation procedure, which we explain below.

Apart from the numerical solving of the equation of motion, other methods are widely used for investigating the kink-antikink interactions. One of them is the collective coordinate method [64, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91]. Within this approximation a real field-theoretical system (which formally has an infinite number of degrees of freedom) is approximately described as a system with one or a few degrees of freedom. For example, in the case of the kink-antikink configuration one can use the distance between the kink and the antikink as the only degree of freedom (collective coordinate). In more complicated modifications of this approach other degrees of freedom (for instance, vibrational ones) can be involved, see, e.g., [84, 85, 86]. Another approximation, which allows to estimate the force between kink and antikink, is the Manton’s method [3, Ch. 5], [92, 93, 94, 95]. This method is based on using the kinks’ asymptotics in situations where the distance between the kinks is large. However, one should mention that the applicability of this method for kinks and solitons with power-law asymptotics is not obvious.

An impressive progress has been achieved in the analytical treatment of the (1, 1)-dimensional field-theoretical models. Among several possibilities to deal with the problem analytically, the trial orbit method was suggested in [29] as a way to solve the equations of motion in systems described by two real scalar fields that interact nonlinearly. This method has been used by others, and in [48] it was shown to be very effective when the equations of motion can be reduced to first-order differential equations. Also, in [49] the authors have used the integrating factor to solve the equations of motion in the case of a very specific potential.

Another possibility of searching for models that support analytical solutions appeared before in [96] and also in Refs. [73, 97, 98]. It refers to the deformation procedure, a method of current interest which helps us to introduce new models, and solve them analytically. This will be further reviewed below, and used to define the model [99] we want to investigate in the current work. In particular, the new model is somehow similar to the \(\varphi ^4\) model with spontaneous symmetry breaking, so we will compare its features with the \(\varphi ^4\) case, in order to highlight the differences between the two cases, and to see how the non-polynomial interaction of the new model modifies the behavior seen in the standard \(\varphi ^4\) model.

In this work we focus our attention on the kink-antikink scattering process and organize the investigation as follows. In Sect. 2 we give general introduction to the (1, 1)-dimensional field-theoretical models, which possess topological solutions with the kink profile. In Sect. 3 we review the \(\varphi ^4\) model, briefly accounting for the kink-antikink scattering within this model. Furthermore, in Sect. 4 we apply the deformation procedure to the \(\varphi ^4\) model in order to introduce a model with non-polynomial potential, which we call the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model. In Sect. 5 we focus on the collisions of the kink and the antikink of the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model. In this section we present our main results and compare them with the results of the \(\varphi ^4\) model. Finally, in Sect. 6 we conclude with a discussion of the results and the prospects for future works.

## 2 Topological solitons in (1,1)-dimensional models

*x*.

*x*, we can assume that \(\delta \varphi \) has the form

*x*-axis. Kink and antikink have the same excitation spectrum.

*x*, and taking into account that \(\varphi _\mathrm {k}^{}(x)\) is a solution of Eq. (2.4), i.e.

*W*in Eq. (2.9) allows to write the operator \(\hat{H}\) in the form

*A*are the first order differential operators

## 3 The \(\varphi ^4\) model

As we informed in the Introduction, the scattering of the \(\varphi ^4\) kinks is well-studied, so let us now briefly review the main features of the collision processes in this case.

*i*,

*j*) number the

*x*and

*t*coordinates of the grid points, \((x_i,t_j)\), on a grid with the steps \(\delta t=0.008\) and \(\delta x=0.01\). We repeated selected computations with smaller steps, \(\delta t=0.004\) and \(\delta x=0.005\), in order to check our numerical results. We also checked the total energy conservation. In all simulations of the \(\varphi ^4\) kinks collisions we used the initial half-distance \(x_0^{}=5\).

At \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}<v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\) the kinks collide and form a long-living bound state, a bion, which is illustrated in Fig. 3. This bion decays slowly, emitting its energy in the form of waves of small amplitude. However the kinks capture appears not for all \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}<v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\), since there is a pattern of *escape windows* in the collision processes. An escape window refers to a narrow interval of initial velocities, within which kinks do not form a bound state but escape to infinities. It is important point that, unlike bouncing off at \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}>v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\), within an escape window the kinks escape to infinities after two, three or more collisions. According to the number of collisions before escaping, there are two-bounce windows, three-bounce windows, and so on. See Fig. 4 for some illustrations of two-, three- and four-bounce windows. The escape windows form a fractal structure. Two-bounce windows are the broadest, and near each of them there is a series of three-bounce windows. Near each three-bounce window, in turn, there is a series of four-bounce windows, and so on, see, e.g., [27, 28].

The explanation of the appearance of the escape windows is that they are related to the resonance energy exchange between the kinetic energy (the translational mode) and the vibrational mode of the kink (antikink). The mechanism works as follows: consider, for example, the two-bounce window illustrated in Fig. 4a. At the first collision, some part of the kinks kinetic energy is transferred into their vibrational modes. As a result of the loss of the kinetic energy, the kink and the antikink are not able to overcome mutual attraction, and they return and collide again. However, if a certain resonance relation between the time \(T_{12}^{}\) between the first and the second collisions and the frequency \(\omega _1^{}\) of the vibrational mode holds, a part of the energy can be returned into the kinetic energy, and the kinks are then able to escape from each other.

## 4 Deformation procedure and the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model

*shooting*method. For various values of \(\omega ^2\) we integrated Eq. (2.16) with the known asymptotic behavior \(\eta (x)\sim \exp (-\sqrt{4-\omega ^2}|x|)\) of its solutions at \(x\rightarrow \pm \infty \), starting from a large negative

*x*and from a large positive

*x*. As a result, we obtained two different solutions, the “left” solution and the “right” solution, which were then matched at some point \(\bar{x}\) close to the origin (the particular choice of \(\bar{x}\) is not important). The Wronskian of the “left” and the “right” solutions, calculated at the matching point, as a function of \(\omega ^2\) turns to zero at eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian (2.17) with the potential (4.6).

We found two levels in the potential (4.6): the zero mode \(\omega _0^{}=0\), and the vibrational mode with the frequency \(\omega _1^{}\approx 1.89\).

## 5 Kink-antikink collisions in the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model

We found a critical value of the initial velocity \(v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\approx 0.4639\), which separates two different regimes of the kinks scattering. At \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}>v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\) the kinks bounce off and escape to infinities after one collision. This is illustrated in Fig. 6, and the situation here is similar to that observed for the \(\varphi ^4\) kinks above the critical velocity, as depicted in Fig. 2.

At the same time, the bion formation in the range \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}<v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\) outside the escape windows looks differently. In our numerical experiments we observed new phenomena, which are not typical for the \(\varphi ^4\) kinks. In many cases the final configuration looked like a bound state of two oscillons. These oscillons oscillate around each other near the origin and, as a consequence, the dependence on time of the field at the origin has a low-frequency envelope, as it is shown in Fig. 10. One notes that the amplitude and frequency of oscillations of these structures depend on the initial velocity of the colliding kinks. Moreover, at some values of the initial velocity we observed escape of the two oscillons with the final velocity \(v_\mathrm {os}^{}\), which varies in a wide range, as one can see from Fig. 11. The situation can be interpreted as follows: at some initial velocities of the colliding kinks the bion is formed, which evolves rather fast into a bound state of two oscillons, which can either oscillate around each other, or escape to infinities. The intervals of the initial velocity of the colliding kinks, at which the oscillons escape, form *oscillons’ escape windows*. The frequency of the field oscillations is the same for all oscillons, \(\omega _\mathrm {os}^{}\approx 1.88\), which is very close to \(\omega _1^{}=1.89\).

In Fig. 12 we show the dependence of the period of oscillations on the initial velocity of the colliding kinks. The shaded areas denote the escape windows for oscillons, i.e. the intervals of the initial velocity, at which the two oscillons escape to infinities. The widths of the escape windows are 0.00030, 0.00013, 0.00011, 0.00002, and \(\sim 0.00001\) for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th windows, respectively.

The high frequency in Fig. 10 (right panels) is close to the frequency of the vibrational mode \(\omega _1\approx 1.89\) of the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) kink. For example, at the initial velocity \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}=0.44183\) the frequency is 1.86, at \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}=0.44188\) it is 1.84, and at \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}=0.44190\) it equals 1.83.

## 6 Comments and conclusion

In this work, we investigated the scattering of kinks of the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model, obtained from the \(\varphi ^4\) model by the deformation procedure, and compared it with the same process in the \(\varphi ^4\) model. We showed that the two models engender similar behavior in several aspects: they support similar kinklike configurations, and their stability potentials present almost the same profile, which gives rise to the zero mode and the vibrational state with the frequency \(\omega _1=\sqrt{3}\approx 1.73\) in the case of the \(\varphi ^4\) model, and \(\omega _1^{}\approx 1.89\) for the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model.

Moreover, in the scattering of kinks, the two models also admit a critical velocity \(v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\), which separates two different regimes of the collisions. On the one hand, at \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}<v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\) we observed the capture of kinks and the formation of bound states and, on the other hand, for \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}>v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\) the kinks escape to infinity after one collision. The value of the critical velocity is \(v_\mathrm {cr}^{}=0.4639\) for the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model and for the \(\varphi ^4\) model it is equal to 0.2598.

In the study of collisions of kinks in the sinh-deformed \(\varphi ^4\) model, we observed that for velocities in the range \(v_\mathrm {in}^{}<v_\mathrm {cr}^{}\), there appeared several escape windows, which are also specific for the \(\varphi ^4\) and some other models. In particular, we have found two-bounce, three-bounce, and four-bounce escape windows; recall that within an *n*-bounce window the kinks escape to infinities after *n* collisions. The emergence of the escape windows is related to the resonant energy exchange between the translational and the vibrational modes of the kink and the antikink.

With this motivation in mind, we then looked deeper into the escape windows in the sinh-deformed model and observed a new phenomenon, the conversion of the kink-antikink pair into a complex oscillating structure at the collision point at the origin. This structure can be interpreted as a bound state of two individual oscillons. It is interesting that at some initial velocities of the colliding kinks we observed the escape of these two oscillons.

The interval of initial velocities of the kinks, in which the kinks collide and form a bound state of two oscillons, which then escape, can be called an oscillons’ escape window. In our simulations the final velocity of the escaping oscillons varies in a wide range from zero to \(\sim 0.2\). Near the oscillons’ escape window the period of the oscillons’ oscillations in their bound state increases, see Fig. 12.

We can also consider models with modified kinematics, as the ones recently investigated in [106], where one considers the Dirac-Born-Infeld case. This modification changes the standard scenario and may contribute to add new possibilities to the escape windows that appear in the standard situation. Another route concerns models described by two real scalar fields, as the one investigated in Refs. [33, 45]. In this case, the presence of the two fields leads to analytical kinklike solutions whose internal structure can be used to model Bloch walls. The scenario here is richer, and the study of the kinks scattering in this model would allow one to see how the internal structure contributes to the presence of the escape windows, etc. These and other similar issues are currently under consideration, and we hope to report on them in the near future.

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Vadim Lensky for reading the manuscript and for valuable comments. This work was performed using resources of the NRNU MEPhI high-performance computing center. The research was supported by the Brazilian agency CNPq under contracts 455931/2014-3 and 306614/2014-6, and by the MEPhI Academic Excellence Project under contract No. 02.a03.21.0005, 27.08.2013.

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