The European Physical Journal C

, Volume 68, Issue 1–2, pp 141–152

Limiting soft particle emission in e+e, hadronic and nuclear collisions

Regular Article - Theoretical Physics

Abstract

In e+e collisions the particle spectra at low momenta reflect the properties of the underlying “soft” QCD gluon bremsstrahlung: the particle density, in the limit p→0, becomes independent of the incoming energy \(\sqrt{s}\) and directly proportional to the colour factors CA, CF for primary gluons or quarks respectively. We find that experimental data from the pp and nuclear reactions reveal the same behaviour: in the limit pT→0 the invariant particle spectra become independent of the collision energy, and their intensities in e+e, pp and nuclear reactions are compatible with the expected colour factors CF: CA: (Npart/2)CA for Npart nucleons, participating in the interaction. Coherent soft gluon bremsstrahlung is, therefore, suggested to be the dominant QCD mechanism for the soft particle production in all these reactions. These “soft” particles probe the very early stage of hadron formation in the collision. Future measurements at the LHC will provide crucial tests on the contributions from possible incoherent multi-component processes.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Y.L. Dokshitzer, V.A. Khoze, A.H. Mueller, S.I. Troian, in Basics of QCD. Ed. Frontieres, Gif-sur-Yvette (1991), 274 p. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V.A. Khoze, W. Ochs, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 12, 2949 (1997). arXiv:hep-ph/9701421 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V.A. Khoze, W. Ochs, J. Phys. G 28, 895 (2002). arXiv:hep-ph/0110295 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y.I. Azimov, Y.L. Dokshitzer, V.A. Khoze, S.I. Troyan, Z. Phys. C 27, 65 (1985) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V.A. Khoze, W. Ochs, J. Wosiek, in Handbook of QCD (Ioffe Festschrift), vol. 2, ed. by M.A. Shifman (World Scientific, Singapore, 2001), p. 1101. arXiv:hep-ph/0009298 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    V.A. Khoze, S. Lupia, W. Ochs, Phys. Lett. B 394, 179 (1997). arXiv:hep-ph/9610204 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    V.A. Khoze, S. Lupia, W. Ochs, Eur. Phys. J. C 5, 77 (1998). arXiv:hep-ph/9711392 ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    V.A. Khoze, S. Lupia, W. Ochs, published in Multiparticle Physics (1996), pp. 358–368 (QCD161:S447:1996). arXiv:hep-ph/9610348
  9. 9.
    K. Goulianos, Phys. Lett. B 358, 379 (1995). Erratum-ibid. B 363, 268 (1995). arXiv:hep-ph/9502356 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.G. Ryskin, A.D. Martin, V.A. Khoze, Eur. Phys. J. C 54, 199 (2008). arXiv:0710.2494 [hep-ph] CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.G. Ryskin, A.D. Martin, V.A. Khoze, Eur. Phys. J. C 60, 249 (2009). arXiv:0812.2407 [hep-ph] CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.P. Feynman, Photon–Hadron Interactions. Reading 1972, p. 282 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    L. Stodolsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 60 (1972) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    F. Niedermayer, Phys. Rev. D 34, 3494 (1986) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F.E. Low, Phys. Rev. D 12, 163 (1975) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Nussinov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1286 (1975) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Nussinov, Phys. Rev. D 14, 246 (1976) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Hamacher, O. Klapp, P. Langefeld, M. Siebel (DELPHI Collaboration), in CERN-OPEN-99-388, Talk at the Int. Europhysics Conf. on High-Energy Physics, Tampere, Finland, 15–21 Jul. 1999 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Abdallah et al. (DELPHI Collaboration), Phys. Lett. B 605, 37 (2005). arXiv:hep-ex/0410075 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y.L. Dokshitzer, S.I. Troian, V.A. Khoze, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 46, 712 (1987) Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Y.L. Dokshitzer, S.I. Troian, V.A. Khoze, Yad. Fiz. 46, 1220 (1987) Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.R. Ellis, V.A. Khoze, W.J. Stirling, Z. Phys. C 75, 287 (1997). arXiv:hep-ph/9608486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.J. Brodsky, J.F. Gunion, Phys. Rev. Lett. 37, 404 (1976) ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, C. Peterson, Phys. Lett. B 71, 337 (1977) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, C. Peterson, Phys. Lett. B 69, 221 (1977). Erratum-ibid. 72B, 503 (1978) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Capella, U. Sukhatme, J. Tran Thanh Van, Z. Phys. C 3, 329 (1979) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Aurenche, F.W. Bopp, J. Ranft, Z. Phys. C 23, 67 (1984) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, B. Nilsson-Almqvist, Nucl. Phys. B 281, 289 (1987) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Gustafson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 39, 2173 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Gustafson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 40, 1981 (2009). arXiv:0905.2492 [hep-ph] ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    V.A. Khoze, A.D. Martin, M.G. Ryskin, W.J. Stirling, Phys. Rev. D 70, 074013 (2004). arXiv:hep-ph/0406135 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    V.A. Abramovsky, V.N. Gribov, O.V. Kancheli, Yad. Fiz. 18, 595 (1973) Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V.A. Abramovsky, V.N. Gribov, O.V. Kancheli, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 18, 308 (1974) Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Sjostrand, Private communication Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Sjostrand, P.Z. Skands, Eur. Phys. J. C 39, 129 (2005). arXiv:hep-ph/0408302 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Sandhoff, P.Z. Skands, arXiv:hep-ph/0604120
  37. 37.
    P.Z. Skands, arXiv:0905.3418 [hep-ph]
  38. 38.
    F. Abe et al. (CDF Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1819 (1988) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    B. Alper et al. (British-Scandinavian Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. B 100, 237 (1975) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. Albajar et al. (UA1 Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. B 335, 261 (1990) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    B.I. Abelev et al. (STAR collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 79, 034909 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group), Phys. Lett. B 667, 1 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    E.K.G. Sarkisyan, A.S. Sakharov, AIP Conf. Proc. 828, 35 (2005). arXiv:hep-ph/0410324 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    V. Khachatryan et al. (CMS Collaboration), J. Hight Energy Phys. 02, 041 (2010). arXiv:1002.0621 [hep-ex] CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    H. Aihara et al. (TPC Collaboration), Phys. Lett. B 184, 114 (1987) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H. Albrecht et al. (ARGUS Collaboration), Z. Phys. C 44, 547 (1989) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Althoff et al. (TASSO Collaboration), Z. Phys. C 17, 5 (1983) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Adloff et al. (H1 Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. B 504, 3 (1997). arXiv:hep-ex/9707005 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    H. Abramowicz et al. (ZEUS collaboration), arXiv:1001.4026 [hep-ex]
  50. 50.
    J. Adams et al. (STAR Coll.), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 102 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K. Adcox et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 184 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    I. Arsene et al. (BRAHMS Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 1 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    B.B. Back et al. (PHOBOS Collaboration), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 28 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. Bialas, M. Bleszynski, W. Czyż, Nucl. Phys. B 111, 461 (1976) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. Adams et al. (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 172302 (2003). arXiv:nucl-ex/0305015 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    S.S. Adler et al. (PHENIX Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 69, 034909 (2004). arXiv:nucl-ex/0307022 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang Ochs
    • 1
  • Valery A. Khoze
    • 2
    • 3
  • M. G. Ryskin
    • 3
  1. 1.Max Planck Institut für PhysikWerner-Heisenberg-InstitutMunichGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Particle Physics PhenomenologyUniversity of DurhamDurhamUK
  3. 3.Petersburg Nuclear Physics InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations