An all-electrical torque differential magnetometer operating under ambient conditions

  • Akashdeep Kamra
  • Stefan von Hoesslin
  • Niklas Roschewsky
  • Johannes Lotze
  • Michael Schreier
  • Rudolf Gross
  • Sebastian T.B. Goennenwein
  • Hans Huebl
Regular Article


An all-electrical torque differential magnetometry (also known as cantilever magnetometry) setup employing piezoelectric quartz tuning forks is demonstrated. The magnetometer can be operated under ambient conditions as well as low temperatures and pressures. It extends the allowed specimen mass range up to several 10 μg without any significant reduction in the sensitivity. Operation under ambient conditions and a simple all-electrical design of the magnetometer should allow for an easy integration with other experimental setups. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of a 25 μm diameter iron wire, measured under ambient conditions with a high signal to noise ratio, was found to be in good agreement with its literature value. Further applications of the technique are discussed.


Solid State and Materials 


  1. 1.
    J. Moser, J. Guettinger, A. Eichler, M.J. Esplandiu, D.E. Liu, M.I. Dykman, A. Bachtold, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 493 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.V. Lavrik, P.G. Datskos, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2697 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    F.J. Giessibl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 949 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Nordström, S. Keller, M. Lillemose, A. Johansson, S. Dohn, D. Haefliger, G. Blagoi, M. Havsteen-Jakobsen, A. Boisen, Sensors 8, 1595 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. Rossel, P. Bauer, D. Zech, J. Hofer, M. Willemin, H. Keller, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8166 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Willemin, C. Rossel, J. Brugger, M.H. Despont, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, J. Hofer, H. Keller, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1163 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Rossel, M. Willemin, A. Gasser, H. Bothuizen, G.I. Meijer, H. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3199 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Kamra, M. Schreier, H. Huebl, S.T.B. Goennenwein, Phys. Rev. B 89, 184406 (2014)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B.C. Stipe, H.J. Mamin, T.D. Stowe, T.W. Kenny, D. Rugar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2874 (2001)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.P. Weber et al., Nano Lett. 12, 6139 (2012)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Tortonese, R.C. Barrett, C.F. Quate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 834 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.A. Eriksson, R.G. Beck, M. Topinka, J.A. Katine, R.M. Westervelt, K.L. Campman, A.C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 671 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F.J. Giessibl, S. Hembacher, M. Herz, C. Schiller, J. Mannhart, Nanotechnology 15, S79 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Rychen, T. Ihn, P. Studerus, A. Herrmann, K. Ensslin, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2765 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Todorovic, S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3595 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Q.P. Unterreithmeier, E.M. Weig, J.P. Kotthaus, Nature 458, 1001 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Bottom, Introduction to Quartz Crystal Unit Design, in Electrical-Computer Science and Engineering Series (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Morse, K. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics, in International series in pure and applied physics (Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1986)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Rychen, Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, 2001Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.M. Friedt, E. Carry, Am. J. Phys. 75, 415 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Castellanos-Gomez, N. Agrat, G. Rubio-Bollinger, Ultramicroscopy 111, 186 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B.S. Nicks, M.W. Calkins, P.A. Quintero, M.W. Meisel, Exploration of Quartz Tuning Forks as Potential Magnetometers for Nanomagnets, in APS Meeting Abstracts (2013), p. 46006Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Chikazumi, C. Graham, Physics of Ferromagnetism, in International Series of Monographs on Physics (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Brugger, M. Despont, C. Rossel, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, M. Willemin, Sens. Actuat. A 73, 235 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akashdeep Kamra
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stefan von Hoesslin
    • 1
  • Niklas Roschewsky
    • 1
  • Johannes Lotze
    • 1
  • Michael Schreier
    • 1
  • Rudolf Gross
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Sebastian T.B. Goennenwein
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hans Huebl
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Walther-Meißner-InstitutGarchingGermany
  2. 2.Kavli Institute of NanoScience, Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4MunichGermany
  4. 4.Physik-Department, Technische Universität MünchenGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations