Spin-dimerization in rare-earth substituted La2RuO5
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The Ru-Ru spin-singlet formation in La2 − x L n x RuO5 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) was investigated by measurements of the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility. After subtraction of the lattice contribution from the specific heat (C p ), similar excess entropy values were obtained for all compounds. These entropies can be explained by the formation of antiferromagnetic Ru-spin dimers at low temperatures and provide a lower estimate for the intradimer exchange strength. Pronounced changes in the transition temperatures and a broadening of the corresponding peak in C p were observed. These changes depend on the rare-earth element and are due to local structural changes and heterogeneities caused by the substitution. The magnetic susceptibilities can be described by the sum of a rare-earth paramagnetic moment and the susceptibility of the unsubstituted La2RuO5. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for various compounds to investigate the origin of the magnetic transition and the relationship between structural changes and the spin-dimerization temperature. The combination of the present results with previous structural investigations supports the model of a spin-pairing of the Ru moments which occurs as a reason of the structural phase transition in La2 − x L n x RuO5.