Spectator and participator processes in the resonant photon-in and photon-out spectra at the Ce L3 edge of CeO2
We study both theoretically and experimentally the photon-in and photon-out spectra of CeO2, which are caused by the Ce 2p to Ce 5d excitation followed by the three different de-excitation channels: (i) Ce 3d to Ce 2p (denoted by 3d-RXES), (ii) O 2p to Ce 2p (v-RXES), and (iii) Ce 5d to Ce 2p (RIXS). In 3d- and v-RXES, the 5d electron plays a role of a spectator, but in RIXS it is a participator. By extending our single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), which was used recently for our calculations of v- and 3d-RXES spectra of CeO2, we study the polarization dependence in the spectator and participator spectra, and we perform more detailed calculations for 3d- and v-RXES spectral features, as well as new calculations for the RIXS spectrum with charge transfer excitations. The polarization dependence is different for the spectator and participator spectra; we have no polarization correlation between the incident and emitted photons for the spectator spectra but a strong polarization correlation for the participator spectrum. The theoretical calculations predict that the charge transfer excitations in RIXS occur in the transfer-energy range overlapped with v-RXES, but the RIXS and v-RXES spectra can be discriminated by taking advantage of the different polarization dependence. The overlapped RIXS and v-RXES spectra are observed successfully by our experiments and well reproduced by our SIAM calculations.