Opinion dynamics in a three-choice system

  • S. GekleEmail author
  • L. Peliti
  • S. Galam
Interdisciplinary Physics


We generalize Galam’s model of opinion spreading by introducing three competing choices. At each update, the population is randomly divided in groups of three agents, whose members adopt the opinion of the local majority. In the case of a tie, the local group adopts opinion A, B or C with probabilities α, β and (1-α-β) respectively. We derive the associated phase diagrams and dynamics by both analytical means and simulations. Polarization is always reached within very short time scales. We point out situations in which an initially very small minority opinion can invade the whole system.


Spectroscopy Neural Network State Physics Phase Diagram Complex System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. S. Galam, Y. Gefen, Y. Shapir, Math. J. Sociology 9, 1 (1982) Google Scholar
  2. S. Galam, Physica A 336, 49 (2004) Google Scholar
  3. M.C. Gonzalez, A.O. Sousa, H.J. Herrmann, to appear in Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 15 (2004) Google Scholar
  4. F. Wu, B.A. Huberman, arXiv: cond-mat/0407252 Google Scholar
  5. C.J. Tessone, R. Toral, P. Amengual, H.S. Wio, M. San Miguel, Eur. Phys. J. B 39, 535 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. F. Slanina, H. Lavicka, Eur. Phys. J. B 35, 279 (2003) Google Scholar
  7. D. Stauffer, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulations 5, No. 1 paper 4, and AIP Conference Proceedings 690, 147 (2003) Google Scholar
  8. F. Schweitzer, J. Zimmermann, H. Mühlenbein, Physica A 303, 189 (2002) Google Scholar
  9. G. Deffuant, D. Neau, F. Amblard, G. Weisbuch, Adv. Complex Systems 3, 87 (2001) Google Scholar
  10. K. Sznajd-Weron, J. Sznajd, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 11, 1157 (2000) Google Scholar
  11. S. Solomon, G. Weisbuch, L. de Arcangelis, N. Jan, D. Stauffer, Physica A 277, 239 (2000) Google Scholar
  12. S. Galam, J. Math. Psychology 30, 426 (1986); S. Galam, J. Stat. Phys. 61, 943 (1990) Google Scholar
  13. S. Galam, Eur. J. Phys. B 25, 403 (2002) Google Scholar
  14. S. Galam, Int. J. General Systems 18, 191 (1991) Google Scholar
  15. S. Galam, Physica A 285, 66 (2000) Google Scholar
  16. D. Aerts, S. Aerts, Foundations of Science 1, 85 (1995), reprinted in Topics in the Foundation of Statistics, edited by B. Van Fraassen (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1997) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences/Società Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Recherche en Épistémologie Appliquée, CREA-École PolytechniqueParisFrance
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche and Unità INFM, Università “Federico II”NapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations