Advertisement

Giant dipole resonance in hot rotating nuclei

  • D. R. ChakrabartyEmail author
  • N. Dinh Dang
  • V. M. Datar
Review

Abstract.

Over the last several decades, extensive experimental and theoretical work has been done on the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in excited nuclei covering a wide range of temperature (T), angular momentum (J) and nuclear mass. A reasonable stability of the GDR centroid energy and an increase of the GDR width with T (in the range \( \sim 1 - 3\) MeV) and J are the two well-established results. Some experiments have indicated the saturation of the GDR width at high T . The gradual disappearance of the GDR vibration at much higher T has been observed. Experiments on the Jacobi transition and the GDR built on superdeformed shapes at high rotational frequencies have been reported in a few cases. Theoretical calculations on the damping of the collective dipole vibration, characterised by the GDR width, have been carried out within various models such as the thermal shape fluctuation model and the phonon damping model. These models offer different interpretations of the variation of the GDR width with T and J and have met with varying degrees of success in explaining the experimental data. In this review, the present experimental and theoretical status in this field will be discussed along with the future outlook. The interesting phenomenon of the pre-equilibrium GDR excitation in nuclear reactions will be briefly addressed.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Bohr, B.R. Mottelson, Nuclear Structure, Vols. I (W.A. Benjamin, New York, 1969) and II (W.A. Benjamin, 1975)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.M. Brink, Oxford Doctoral Thesis (1955) unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Axel, Phys. Rev. 126, 671 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.G. Allas, S.S. Hanna, L. Meyer-Schutzmeister, R. Segel, Nucl. Phys. 58, 122 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.S. Dietrich, J.C. Browne, W.J. O’Connel, M.J. Kay, Phys. Rev. C 10, 795 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.O. Newton, B. Herskind, R.M. Diamond, E.L. Dines, J.E. Draper, K.H. Lindenberger, C. Schuck, S. Shih, F.S. Stephens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1383 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M.N. Harakeh, A. van der Woude, Giant Resonances: Fundamental High-Frequency Modes of Nuclear Excitation (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Vlasov, J. Phys. (USSR) 9, 25 (1945)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L.D. Landau, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 30, 1058 (1956) (Sov. Phys. JETP 3Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L.D. Landau, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 59 (1957) (Sov. Phys. JETP 5Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Fiolhais, Ann. Phys. 171, 186 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Auerbach, A. Yeverechyahu, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 95, 35 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P.F. Bortignon, A. Bracco, R.A. Broglia, Giant Resonances: Nuclear Structure at Finite Temperature (Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.A. Snover, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 545 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.J. Gaardhøje, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 42, 483 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Paul, M. Thoennessen, Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 44, 65 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Santonocito, Y. Blumenfeld, Eur. Phys. J. A 30, 183 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.L. Egido, P. Ring, J. Phys. G 19, 1 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Hofmann, The Physics of Warm Nuclei and of Mesoscopic Systems (Oxford University Press, London, 2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 93, 549 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. Santonocito et al., Phys. Rev. C 90, 054603 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Maj, J.J. Gaardhøje, A. Atac, S. Mitarai, J. Nyberg, A. Virtanen, Nucl. Phys. A 571, 185 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Migneco et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 314, 31 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Mukhopadhyay et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 582, 603 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.R. Nelson, H. Hirayama, D.W.O. Rogers, Stanford University Report SLAC 265 (1985)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    GEANT4 Collaboration (S. Agostinelli et al.), Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 506, 250 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Musumarra, G. Cardella, A. Di Pietro, S.L. Li, M. Papa, G. Pappalardo, F. Rizzo, S. Tudisco, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 370, 558 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Sletten, Proceedings of the International Seminar on Frontiers of Nuclear Spectroscopy, Kyoto 1992 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) p. 129Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. Bazzacco, Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Structure at High Angular Momentum, Ottawa, 1992, Vol. 2, Proc. AECL-10613Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. de Angelis, A. Bracco, D. Curien, Europhys. News 34, 181 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, S. Sen, M. Thoennessen, N. Alamanos, P. Paul, J.J. Gaardhøje, Phys. Rev. C 36, 1886 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. V. Ignatyuk, G.N. Smirenkin, A.S. Tishin, Yad. Fiz. 21, 485 (1975) (Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 21Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. Reisdorf, Z. Phys. A 300, 227 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. E. Ormand, P.F. Bortignon, A. Bracco, R.A. Broglia, Phys. Rev. C 40, 1510 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S. Shlomo, J.B. Natowitz, Phys. Rev. C 44, 2878 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.J. Charity, Phys. Rev. C 82, 014610 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. Puhlhofer, Nucl. Phys. A 280, 267 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.H. Gundlach, K.A. Snover, C.A. Gossett, M. Kicińska-Habior, K.T. Lesko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2523 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, V.M. Datar, Suresh Kumar, E.T. Mirgule, A. Mitra, V. Nanal, R.G. Pillay, P.C. Rout, J. Phys. G 37, 055105 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    G. Gervais, M. Thoennessen, W.E. Ormand, Phys. Rev. C 58, R1377 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Pierroutsakou, F. Auger, N. Alamanos, P.R.S. Gomes, J.L. Sida, A. Gillibert, N. Frascaria, I. Lhenry, J.C. Roynette, T. Suomijarvi, Nucl. Phys. A 600, 131 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    K. Yoshida, J. Kasagi, H. Hama, M. Sakurai, M. Kodama, K. Farutaka, K. Ieki, W. Galster, T. Kubo, M. Ishihara, Phys. Lett. B 245, 7 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Kasagi et al., Nucl. Phys. A 538, 585 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Kasagi, K. Yoshida, Nucl. Phys. A 569, 195 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    P. Carlos, R. Bergere, H. Beil, A. Lepretre, A. Veyssiere, Nucl. Phys. A 219, 61 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.R. Junghans, G. Rusev, R. Schwengner, A. Wagner, E. Groose, Phys. Lett. B 670, 200 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Deepak Pandit, S. Mukhopadhyay, Srijit Bhattacharya, Surajit Pal, A. De, S.R. Banerjee, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 624, 148 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Mattiuzzi, A. Bracco, F. Camera, W.E. Ormand, J.J. Gaardhøje, A. Maj, B. Million, M. Pignanelli, T. Tveter, Nucl. Phys. A 612, 262 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Thoennessen, E. Ramakrishnan, J.R. Beene, F.E. Bertrand, M.L. Halbert, D.J. Horen, P.E. Mueller, R.L. Varner, Phys. Rev. C 51, 3148 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    S.K. Rathi, D.R. Chakrabarty, V.M. Datar, S. Kumar, E.T. Mirgule, A. Mitra, V. Nanal, H.H. Oza, Phys. Rev. C 67, 024603 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 560, 546 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    D.N. Zubarev, Sov. Uspekhi 3, 320 (1960) (Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 71ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    A.V. Ignatyuk, Izv, Acad. Nauk, Ser. Fiz. 38, 2613 (1974)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A.V. Ignatyuk, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 21, 10 (1975)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M.I. Baznat, A.V. Ignatyuk, N.I. Pyatov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 30, 493 (1979)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    H.M. Sommermann, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 151, 163 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    D. Vautherin, N. Vinh Mau, Phys. Lett. B 50, 162 (1983)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    D. Vautherin, N. Vinh Mau, Nucl. Phys. A 422, 140 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    H. Sagawa, G.F. Bertsch, Phys. Lett. B 146, 138 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. Ring, L.M. Robledo, J.L. Egido, M. Faber, Nucl. Phys. A 419, 261 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    N. Dinh Dang, J. Phys. G 11, L125 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    N. Dinh Dang, N. Zuy Thang, J. Phys. G 14, 1471 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    L.G. Moretto, Phys. Lett. B 40, 1 (1972)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.L. Goodman, Nucl. Phys. A 352, 30 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A.L. Goodman, Phys. Rev. C 29, 1887 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. Rossignoli, P. Ring, N.D. Dang, Phys. Lett. B 297, 9 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    N.D. Dang, P. Ring, R. Rossignoli, Phys. Rev. C 47, 606 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. Zelevinsky, B.A. Brown, N. Frazier, M. Horoi, Phys. Rep. 276, 85 (1996)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    D.J. Dean, S.E. Koonin, K. Langanke, P.B. Radha, Y. Alhassid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2909 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    N. Quang Hung, N. Dinh Dang, Phys. Rev. C 79, 054328 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    N.D. Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 68, 014318 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    N. Dinh Dang, V. Zelevinsky, Phys. Rev. C 64, 064319 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    N. Dinh Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 67, 014304 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    N. Dinh Dang, Nucl. Phys. A 784, 147 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    N. Dinh Dang, N. Quang Hung, Phys. Rev. C 77, 064315 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Lauritzen, P. Arve, G.F. Bertsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2835 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Volya, B.A. Brown, V. Zelevinsky, Phys. Lett. B 509, 37 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    N. Dinh Dang, N. Quang Hung, Phys. Rev. C 86, 044333 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    V.G. Soloviev, Theory of Atomic Nuclei: Quasiparticle and Phonons (IOP, Bristol, 1992)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    N. Dinh Dang, Nucl. Phys. A 504, 143 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    I. Hamamoto, Nucl. Phys. A 126, 545 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    G.F. Bertsch, P.F. Bortignon, R.A. Broglia, C.H. Dasso, Phys. Lett. B 80, 161 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    P.F. Bortignon, R.A. Broglia, Nucl. Phys. A 371, 405 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    S.P. Kamerdhiev, G.Ya. Tertychny, V.I. Tselyaev, Russ. J. Phys. Elem. Part. At. Nucl. 28, 334 (1997)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    P.F. Bortignon, R.A. Broglia, G.F. Bertsch, J. Pacheco, Nucl. Phys. A 460, 149 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    N. Dinh Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4145 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    N.D. Dang, A. Arima, Nucl. Phys. A 636, 427 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    N. Dinh Dang, K. Tanabe, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 58, 3374 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    N. Dinh Dang, K. Tanabe, A. Arima, Phys. Lett. B 445, 1 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    N. Dinh Dang, K. Tanabe, A. Arima, Nucl. Phys. A 645, 536 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    N. Dinh Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 68, 044303 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    N. Dinh Dang, Phys. Rev. C 85, 064323 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M. Brack, P. Quentin, Phys. Lett. B 52, 159 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    P. Bonche, S. Levit, D. Vautherin, Nucl. Phys. A 436, 265 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    N. Dinh Dang, M. Ciemała, M. Kmiecik, A. Maj, Phys. Rev. C 87, 054313 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cai Yanhuang, M. Di Toro, Phys. Rev. C 39, 105 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    G.F. Burgio, M. Di Toro, Nucl. Phys. A 476, 189 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. Smerzi, A. Bonasera, M. Di Toro, Phys. Rev. C 44, 1713 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. Di Toro, V.M. Kolomietz, A.B. Larionov, Phys. Rev. C 59, 3099 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    J. Blocki, Y. Boneh, J.R. Nix, J. Randrup, M. Robel, A.J. Sierk, W.J. Swiatucki, Ann. Phys. 113, 330 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    A.A. Abrikosov, I.M. Khalatnikov, Rep. Prog. Phys. 22, 329 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    D. Pines, P. Nozieres, The Theory of Quantum Liquids, Vol. 1 (W.A. Benjamin, New York, 1966)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    J.J. Griffin, M. Dworzecka, Phys. Lett. B 156, 39 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    C. Yannouleas, Nucl. Phys. A 439, 336 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    C. Yannouleas, R.A. Broglia, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 217, 105 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    V.M. Kolomietz, S. Shlomo, Phys. Rep. 390, 133 (2004)ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    V.M. Kolomietz, V.A. Plujko, S. Shlomo, Phys. Rev. C 52, 2480 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Y. Alhassid, B. Bush, S. Levit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1926 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    W.E. Ormand, P.F. Bortignon, R.A. Broglia, A. Bracco, Nucl. Phys. A 614, 217 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Y. Alhassid, B. Bush, Nucl. Phys. A 549, 12 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Y. Alhassid, Nucl. Phys. A 649, 107 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    K. Pomorski, J. Dudek, Phys. Rev. C 67, 044316 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    J. Dudek, K. Pomorski, N. Schunck, N. Dubray, Eur. Phys. J. A 20, 15 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    N. Dubray, J. Dudek, A. Maj, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36, 1161 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    J. Dudek, Phys. Rev. C 23, 920 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    J. Dudek et al., Phys. Rev. C 26, 1712 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    D. Kusnezov, Y. Alhassid, K.A. Snover, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 542 (1998) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, K.M. McAlpine, Nucl. Phys. A 788, 231 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    A.K. Rhine Kumar, P. Arumugam, N. Dinh Dang, Phys. Rev. C 90, 044308 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    A.K. Rhine Kumar, P. Arumugam, N. Dinh Dang, Phys. Rev. C 91, 044305 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    A. Ansari, N. Dinh Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 63, 024310 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    P. Arumugam, G. Shanmugam, S.K. Patra, Phys. Rev. C 69, 054313 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    P. Arumugam, A. Ganga Deb, S.K. Patra, Eur. Phys. Lett. 70, 313 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    A. Ansari, N. Dinh Dang, A. Arima, Phys. Rev. C 62, 011302(R) (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    B.K. Agrawal, A. Ansari, P. Ring, Nucl. Phys. A 165, 183 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    J.A. Draper, J.O. Newton, L.G. Sobotka, H. Lindenberger, G.J. Wozniak, L.G. Moretto, F.S. Stephens, R.M. Diamond, R.J. McDonald, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 434 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    W. Hennerici et al., Nucl. Phys. A 396, 329 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    B. Haas, D.C. Radford, F.A. Beck, T. Byrski, C. Gehringer, J.C. Merdinger, A. Nourredine, Y. Schutz, J.P. Vivien, Phys. Lett. B 120, 79 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    J.J. Gaardhøje, O. Andersen, R.M. Diamond, C. Ellegaard, L. Grodzins, B. Herskind, Z. Sujkowski, P.M. Walker, Phys. Lett. B 139, 273 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    A. Lazzarini, H. Habs, W. Hennerici, R. Kroth, J. Schirmer, V. Metag, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1045 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Th. Arctaedius, Chr. Bargholtz, R.E. Ekstrom, K. Fransson, B. Ritzen, P.E. Tegner, Phys. Lett. B 158, 205 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    E.F. Garman, K.A. Snover, S.H. Chew, S.K.B. Hesmondhalgh, W.N. Catford, P.M. Walker, Phys. Rev. C 28, 2554 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    J.J. Gaardhøje, C. Ellegaard, B. Herskind, S.G. Steadman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 148 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    C.A. Gossett, K.A. Snover, J.A. Behr, G. Feldman, J.L. Osborne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1486 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    M. Kicińska-Habior, K.A. Snover, J.A. Behr, C.A. Gossett, Y. Alhassid, N. Whelan, Phys. Lett. B 308, 225 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    M. Kicińska-Habior, K.A. Snover, C.A. Gossett, J.A. Behr, G. Feldman, H.K. Glatzel, J.H. Gundlach, Phys. Rev. C 36, 612 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Z.M. Drebi, K.A. Snover, A.W. Charlop, M.S. Kaplan, D.P. Wells, D. Ye, Y. Alhassid, Phys. Rev. C 52, 578 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    G. Viesti et al., Phys. Rev. C 40, R1570 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    M. Kicińska-Habior, K.A. Snover, J.A. Behr, C.A. Gossett, J.H. Gundlach, G. Feldman, Phys. Rev. C 45, 569 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    J.J. Gaardhøje, C. Ellegaard, B. Herskind, R.M. Diamond, M.A. Deleplanque, G. Dines, A.O. Macchiavelli, F.S. Stephens, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1783 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    A. Bracco, F. Camera, M. Mattiuzzi, B. Million, M. Pignanelli, J.J. Gaardhøje, A. Maj, T. Ramsoy, T. Tveter, Z. Zelanzy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3748 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    E. Ramakrishnan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2015 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    T. Baumann et al., Nucl. Phys. A 635, 428 (1998) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    G. Viesti et al., Nucl. Phys. A 652, 17 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ph. Chomaz, Nucl. Phys. A 569, 203 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ph. Chomaz, Phys. Lett. B 347, 1 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    P. Heckman et al., Phys. Lett. B 555, 43 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    A. Bracco et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2080 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    J.J. Gaardhøje, A.M. Bruce, B. Herskind, Nucl. Phys. A 482, 121 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    S.S. Dietrich, B.L. Berman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 38, 199 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    M.P. Kelly, K.A. Snover, J.P.S. van Schagen, M. Kicińska-Habior, Z. Trznadel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3404 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    M.P. Kelly, J.F. Liang, A.A. Sonzogni, K.A. Snover, J.P.S. van Schagen, J.P. Lestone, Phys. Rev. C 56, 3201 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, M. Thoennessen, S. Sen, P. Paul, R. Butsch, M.G. Herman, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1437 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    A.M. Bruce, J.J. Gaardhøje, B. Herskind, R. Chapman, J.C. Lisle, F. Khazaie, J.N. Mo, P.J. Twin, Phys. Lett. B 215, 237 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    A. Stolk, M.N. Harakeh, W.H.A. Hesselink, H.J. Hofmann, R.F. Noorman, J.P.S. van Schagen, Z. Sujkowski, H. Verheul, M.J.A. de Voigt, D.J.P. Witte, Phys. Rev. C 40, R2454 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    J.P.S. van Schagen et al., Phys. Lett. B 308, 231 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    J.P.S. van Schagen, M.N. Harakeh, W.H.A. Hesselink, R.F. Noorman, Nucl. Phys. A 581, 145 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    R.F. Noorman et al., Phys. Lett. B 292, 257 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    R.F. Noorman et al., Nucl. Phys. A 574, 501 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    S. Flibotte, B. Haas, P. Taras, H.R. Andrews, D.C. Radford, D. Ward, Nucl. Phys. A 531, 205 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    M. Gallardo, M. Diebel, T. Dossing, R.A. Broglia, Nucl. Phys. A 443, 415 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, M. Thoennessen, N. Alamanos, P. Paul, S. Sen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1092 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    M. Thoennessen, D.R. Chakrabarty, R. Butsch, M.G. Herman, P. Paul, S. Sen, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1762 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    R. Butsch, M. Thoennessen, D.R. Chakrabarty, M.G. Herman, P. Paul, Phys. Rev. C 41, 1530 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    N. Gelli et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 7, 361 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, V.M. Datar, R.K. Choudhury, B.K. Nayak, Y.K. Agarwal, C.V.K. Baba, M.K. Sharan, Phys. Rev. C 53, 2739 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    A. Atac et al., Phys. Lett. B 252, 545 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    F. Camera et al., Phys. Rev. C 60, 014306 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    M. Mattiuzzi, A. Bracco, F. Camera, B. Million, M. Pignanelli, J.J. Gaardhøje, A. Maj, T. Ramsoy, T. Tveter, Z. Zelanzy, Phys. Lett. B 364, 13 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    M. Thoennessen et al., Phys. Lett. B 282, 288 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    T.S. Tveter et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1035 (1996) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    M. Kmiecik, A. Maj, A. Bracco, F. Camera, M. Casanova, S. Leoni, B. Million, B. Herskind, R.A. Bark, W.E. Ormand, Nucl. Phys. A 674, 29 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    M. Kmiecik et al., Phys. Rev. C 70, 064317 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Srijit Bhattacharya et al., Phys. Rev. C 77, 024318 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ish Mukul et al., Phys. Rev. C 88, 024312 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ish Mukul et al., J. Phys. G 41, 115103 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    O. Wieland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 012501 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    R.J. Vojtech, R. Butsch, V.M. Datar, M.G. Herman, R.L. McGrath, P. Paul, M. Thoennessen, Phys. Rev. C 40, R2441 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. Ciemała et al., Phys. Rev. C 91, 054313 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    F. Gramegna et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 389, 474 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    M. Bruno et al., Eur. Phys. J A 49, 128 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    M. Ciemała, M. Kmiecik, M. Krzysiek, A. Maj, K. Mazurek, R. Charity, D. Mancusi, Acta Phys. Pol. B 44, 611 (2013) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    F. Camera et al., Phys. Lett. B 560, 155 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    P. Heckman et al., Nucl. Phys. A 750, 175 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    S. Mukhopadhyay et al., Phys. Lett. B 709, 9 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Deepak Pandit, S. Mukhopadhyay, Surajit Pal, A. De, S.R. Banerjee, Phys. Lett. B 713, 434 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Balaram Dey et al., Phys. Lett. B 731, 92 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    C. Simenel, Ph. Chomaz, Phys. Rev. C 80, 064309 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    A. Stolk, A. Balanda, M.N. Harakeh, W.H.A. Hesselink, J. Penninga, H. Rijneveld, Nucl. Phys. A 505, 241 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, V. Nanal, V.M. Datar, Suresh Kumar, A. Mitra, E.T. Mirgule, R.G. Pillay, Nucl. Phys. A 770, 126 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    A.K. Rhine Kumar, P. Arumugam, Phys. Rev. C 92, 044314 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    D.R. Chakrabarty, V.M. Datar, Comment on ref. Rhine1, submitted to Phys. Rev. CGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Sarla Rathi, Phys. Rev. C 74, 024608 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    R. Beringer, W.J. Knox, Phys. Rev. 121, 1195 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    S. Cohen, F. Plasil, W.J. Swiatecki, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 82, 557 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, Acta Phys. Pol. B 32, 1033 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    A. Bracco, F. Camera, S. Leoni, Nucl. Phys. A 682, 449 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    A. Maj et al., Acta Phys. Pol. B 32, 2433 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    A. Maj et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 20, 165 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    A. Maj et al., Nucl. Phys. A 731, 319 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    M. Kmiecik et al., Acta Phys. Pol. B 36, 1169 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Deepak Pandit et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 061302 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    D.R. Chakrabarty et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 044619 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    G. Enders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 249 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    H.J. Hofmann, J.C. Bacelar, M.N. Harakeh, T.D. Poelhekken, A. van der Woude, Nucl. Phys. A 571, 301 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    R.A. Broglia, P.F. Bortignon, A. Bracco, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 28, 517 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    A. Bonasera, M. Di Toro, A. Smerzi, D.M. Brink, Nucl. Phys. A 569, 215 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    J.J. Gaardhøje et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1409 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    A. Bracco, F. Camera, J.J. Gaardhøje, B. Herskind, M. Pignanelli, Nucl. Phys. A 519, 47 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    J.H. Le Faou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3321 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    T. Suomijarvi et al., Phys. Rev. C 53, 2258 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    P.F. Bortignon, A. Bracco, D. Brink, R.A. Broglia, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3360 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    A. Smerzi, M. Di Toro, D.M. Brink, Phys. Lett. B 320, 216 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    P. Piattelli et al., Nucl. Phys. A 649, 181 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    D. Santonocito et al., Phys. Rev. C 66, 044619 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    A. Bonasera, F. Gulminelli, J. Molitoris, Phys. Rep. 243, 1 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    F. Amorini et al., Phys. Rev. C 69, 014608 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    T.M.V. Bootsma, G.J. van Nieuwenhuizen, P.F. Box, R. Kamermans, P.G. Kuijer, C.T.A.M. de Laat, C.J.W. Twenhofel, P. Decowski, K.A. Griffioen, Z. Phys. A 359, 391 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    J.B. Natowitz, R. Wada, K. Hagel, T. Keutgen, M. Murray, A. Makeev, L. Qin, P. Smith, C. Hamilton, Phys. Rev. C 65, 034618 (2002) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    PHENIX Collaboration (K. Adcox et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 184 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    B.B. Back et al., Nucl. Phys. A 757, 28 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    BRAHMS Collaboration (J. Arsene et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 1 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    STAR Collaboration (J. Adams et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 757, 102 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    ALICE Collaboration (K. Arnold et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252302 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    ATLAS Collaboration (G. Aad et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252303 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    P.K. Kovtun, D.T. Son, A.O. Starinets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 111601 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    N. Auerbach, S. Shlomo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 172501 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    N. Dinh Dang, Phys. Rev. C 84, 034309 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    K.T.R. Davies, A.J. Sierk, J.R. Nix, Phys. Rev. C 13, 2385 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    L. Campajola et al., Nucl. Phys. A 583, 119 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    M. Sandoli et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 6, 275 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    D. Pierroutsakou et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 16, 423 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    S. Flibotte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1448 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    J.P. Martin et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 257, 301 (1987) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    M. Colonna, N. Colonna, A. Bonasera, M. DiToro, Nucl. Phys. A 541, 295 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    D. Pierroutsakou et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 17, 71 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    D. Pierroutsakou et al., Phys. Rev. C 71, 054605 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    D. Pierroutsakou et al., Phys. Rev. C 80, 024612 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    V. Baran, M. Cabibbo, M. Colona, M. Di Toro, N. Tsoneva, Nucl. Phys. A 679, 373 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    V. Baran, D.M. Brink, M. Colona, M. Di Toro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 182501 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    M. Thoennessen, J.R. Beene, F.E. Bertrand, C. Baktash, M.L. Halbert, D.J. Horen, D.G. Sarantites, W. Spang, D.W. Stracener, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4055 (1993) and references thereinADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    M. Cinausero et al., Nuovo Cimento 111, 613 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. Chakrabarty
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. Dinh Dang
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. M. Datar
    • 4
  1. 1.(Ex) Nuclear Physics DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Nishina Centre for Accelerator-based ScienceRIKENSaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Science and TechniqueVINATOMHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.INO CellTata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations