Advertisement

Isospin effects and symmetry energy studies with INDRA

  • INDRA Collaboration
  • G. Ademard
  • B. Borderie
  • A. Chbihi
  • O. Lopez
  • P. Napolitani
  • M. F. RivetEmail author
  • M. Boisjoli
  • E. Bonnet
  • R. Bougault
  • J. D. Frankland
  • E. Galichet
  • D. Gruyer
  • D. Guinet
  • M. Kabtoul
  • G. Lehaut
  • P. Lautesse
  • M. La Commara
  • N. Le Neindre
  • P. Marini
  • M. Pârlog
  • P. Pawłowski
  • E. Rosato
  • R. Roy
  • G. Spadaccini
  • E. Vient
  • M. Vigilante
  • J. P. Wieleczko
Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical issue on Nuclear Symmetry Energy

Abstract.

The equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter is still controversial, as predictions at subsaturation as well as above normal density widely diverge. We discuss several experimental results measured in heavy-ion collisions with the INDRA array in the incident energy range 5-80A MeV. In particular an estimate of the density dependence of the symmetry energy is derived from isospin diffusion results compared with a transport code: the potential part of the symmetry energy linearly increases with the density. We demonstrate that isospin equilibrium is reached in mid-central collisions for the two reactions Ni+Au at 52A MeV and Xe + Sn at 32A MeV. New possible variables and an improved modelization to investigate symmetry energy are discussed.

Keywords

Impact Parameter Incident Energy Compound Nucleus Symmetry Energy Isotopic Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    C. Fuchs, H.H. Wolter, Eur. Phys. J. A 30, 5 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Di Toro, V. Baran, M. Colonna, G. Ferini, T. Gaitanos et al., Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 62, 389 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Baran, M. Colonna, V. Greco, M. Di Toro, Phys. Rep. 410, 335 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Rizzo, M. Colonna, V. Baran, M. Di Toro, H.H. Wolter et al., Nucl. Phys. A 806, 79 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Napolitani, M. Colonna, F. Gulminelli, E. Galichet, S. Piantelli et al., Phys. Rev. C 81, 044619 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Chomaz, V. Duflot, F. Gulminelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3587 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Chomaz, F. Gulminelli, Physica A 330, 451 (2003)ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    INDRA and ALADIN Collaborations (M. Pichon, B. Tamain, R. Bougault, F. Gulminelli, O. Lopez et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 779, 267 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    INDRA Collaboration (E. Bonnet, D. Mercier, B. Borderie, F. Gulminelli, M.F. Rivet et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 072701 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Ducoin, P. Chomaz, F. Gulminelli, Nucl. Phys. A 781, 407 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Pouthas, B. Borderie, R. Dayras, E. Plagnol, M.F. Rivet et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 357, 418 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Pouthas, A. Bertaut, B. Borderie, P. Bourgault, B. Cahan et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 369, 222 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Chomaz, F. Gulminelli, W. Trautmann, S.J. Yennello (Editors), Dynamics and Thermodynamics with nuclear degrees of freedom, in Eur. Phys. J. A, Vol. 30 (Springer, 2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bao-An Li, Lie-Wen Chen, Che Ming Ko, Phys. Rep. 464, 113 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    INDRA Collaboration (J.D. Frankland, C.O. Bacri, B. Borderie, M.F. Rivet, M. Squalli et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 689, 905 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    INDRA Collaboration (G. Tăbăcaru, B. Borderie, A. Ouatizerga, M. Parlog, M.F. Rivet et al.), Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 428, 379 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    INDRA Collaboration (M. Parlog, B. Borderie, M.F. Rivet, G. Tăbăcaru, A. Chbihi et al.), Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 482, 674 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    INDRA Collaboration (M. Parlog, B. Borderie, M.F. Rivet, G. Tăbăcaru, A. Chbihi et al.), Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 482, 693 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    INDRA Collaboration (F. Gagnon-Moisan, E. Galichet, M.F. Rivet, B. Borderie, M. Colonna et al.), Phys. Rev. C 86, 044617 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.J. Kunde, S. Gaff, C.K. Gelbke, T. Glasmacher, M.J. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2897 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    INDRA Collaboration (M.F. Rivet, C.O. Bacri, B. Borderie, J.D. Frankland, M. Assenard et al.), Phys. Lett. B 430, 217 (1998)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Chomaz, M. Colonna, J. Randrup, Phys. Rep. 389, 263 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Borderie, M.F. Rivet, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 61, 551 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Colonna, M. Di Toro, A. Guarnera, S. Maccarone, M. Zielinska-Pfabé et al., Nucl. Phys. A 642, 449 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Colonna, G. Fabbri, M. Di Toro, F. Matera, H.H. Wolter, Nucl. Phys. A 742, 337 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Baran, M. Colonna, M. Di Toro, V. Greco, M. Zielinska-Pfabé et al., Nucl. Phys. A 703, 603 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    INDRA Collaboration (J.D. Frankland, B. Borderie, M. Colonna, M.F. Rivet, C.O. Bacri et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 689, 940 (2001)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    D. Durand, Nucl. Phys. A 541, 266 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    INDRA Collaboration (S. Hudan, A. Chbihi, J.D. Frankland, A. Mignon, A. Botvina et al.), Phys. Rev. C 67, 064613 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    INDRA Collaboration (S. Piantelli, B. Borderie, E. Bonnet, N. Le Neindre, A.R. Raduta et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 809, 111 (2008)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. Baran, M. Colonna, M. Di Toro, M. Zielinska-Pfabé, H.H. Wolter, Phys. Rev. C 72, 064620 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    INDRA Collaboration (E. Galichet, M.F. Rivet, B. Borderie, M. Colonna, R. Bougault et al.), Phys. Rev. C 79, 064614 (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    E. Galichet, M. Colonna, B. Borderie, M.F. Rivet, Phys. Rev. C 79, 064615 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. Galichet, M.F. Rivet, B. Borderie, M. Colonna, R. Bougault et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 19, 1534 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    INDRA Collaboration (T. Lefort, D. Doré, D. Cussol, Y. Ma, J. Péter et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 662, 397 (2000)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    INDRA Collaboration (E. Plagnol, J. Lukasik, G. Auger, C.O. Bacri, N. Bellaize et al.), Phys. Rev. C 61, 014606 (1999)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    INDRA Collaboration (M. Kabtoul, R. Bougault, M. Colonna, E. Galichet), EPJ Web of Conferences 31, 00010 (2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Kabtoul, PhD thesis, Université de Caen (2013)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Galin, B. Gatty, D. Guerreau, M. Lefort, X. Tarrago et al., Z. Phys. A 278, 347 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    T.H. Chiang, D. Guerreau, P. Auger, J. Galin, B. Gatty et al., Phys. Rev. C 20, 1408 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    V. Borrel, B. Gatty, D. Guerreau, J. Galin, D. Jacquet, Z. Phys. A 324, 205 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. De Filippo, A. Pagano, P. Russotto, F. Amorini, A. Anzalone et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 014610 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    F. Amorini, G. Cardella, G. Giuliani, M. Papa, C. Agodi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 112701 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M.B. Tsang, Y. Zhang, P. Danielewicz, M. Famiano, Z. Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 122701 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M.B. Tsang, J.R. Stone, F. Camera, P. Danielewicz, S. Gandolfi et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 015803 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Z.Y. Sun, M.B. Tsang, W.G. Lynch, G. Verde, F. Amorini et al., Phys. Rev. C 82, 051603 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    INDRA and ALADIN Collaborations (G. Lehaut, D. Durand, O. Lopez, E. Vient, A. Chbihi et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 232701 (2010)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Durand, B. Tamain, E. Suraud, Nuclear dynamics in the nucleonic regime (IOP, London, 2000)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.M. Lattimer, M. Prakash, Science 304, 536 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Andronic, J. Lukasik, W. Reisdorf, W. Trautmann, Eur. Phys. J. A 30, 31 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    N. Metropolis, R. Bivins, M. Storm, J.M. Miller, G. Friedlander et al., Phys. Rev. 110, 204 (1958)ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, Nuclear matter and nuclear reactions (North-Holland Publisher, Amsterdam, 1968)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    G.Q. Li, R. Machleidt, Phys. Rev. C 48, 1702 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    B. Chen, F. Sammarruca, C.A. Bertulani, Phys. Rev. C 87, 054616 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    F. Sammarruca, contribution to this Topical Issue, arXiv: 1307.5373[nucl-th]Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    VAMOS Collaboration (H. Savajols), Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 204, 146 (2003)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    S. Pullanhiotan, M. Rejmund, A. Navin, W. Mittig, S. Bhattacharyya, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 593, 343 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. Pullanhiotan, A. Chatterjee, B. Jacquot, A. Navin, M. Rejmund, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 266, 4148 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    A.J. Sierk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 582 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Brondi, A. Di Nitto, G. La Rana, R. Moro, P. Nadotchy et al., EPJ Web of Conferences 2, 04002 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    R.J. Charity, M.A. McMahan, G.J. Wozniak, R.J. McDonald, L.G. Moretto et al., Nucl. Phys. A 483, 371 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. Shlomo, J.B. Natowitz, Phys. Rev. C 44, 2878 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. Nebbia, K. Hagel, D. Fabris, Z. Majka, J. Natowitz et al., Phys. Lett. B 176, 20 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    S.I. Al-Quraishi, S.M. Grimes, T.N. Massey, D.A. Resler, Phys. Rev. C 63, 065803 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    G. Ademard, J.P. Wieleczko, J. Gomez del Campo, M. La Commara, E. Bonnet et al., Phys. Rev. C 83, 054619 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    R. Charity, D. Bowman, Z. Liu, R. McDonald, M. McMahan et al., Nucl. Phys. A 476, 516 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    V.E. Viola, K. Kwiatkowski, M. Walker, Phys. Rev. C 31, 1550 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. Mancusi, R.J. Charity, J. Cugnon, EPJ Web of Conferences 31, 3 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. Lalazissis, D. Vretenar, P. Ring, Nucl. Phys. A 679, 481 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    P. Marini, PhD thesis, Università di Bologna (2009) http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/1532/
  71. 71.
    INDRA Collaboration (P. Marini, M.F. Rivet, B. Borderie, N. Le Neindre, A. Chbihi et al.), EPJ Web of Conferences 2, 04003 (2010)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    H. Gauvin, D. Guerreau, Y.L. Beyec, M. Lefort, F. Plasil et al., Phys. Lett. B 58, 163 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    J.P. Coffin, G. Guillaume, A. Fahli, F. Rami, B. Heusch et al., Phys. Rev. C 30, 539 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. Lehaut, F. Gulminelli, O. Lopez, Phys. Rev. E 81, 051104 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. Ono, Phys. Rev. C 59, 853 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Colonna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 042701 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Ono, P. Danielewicz, W.A. Friedman, W.G. Lynch, M.B. Tsang, Phys. Rev. C 70, 041604 (2004)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, Nucl. Phys. A 81, 1 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    P. Moller, J.R. Nix, W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 59, 185 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    P. Danielewicz, Nucl. Phys. A 727, 233 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    F. Chapelle, G.F. Burgio, P. Chomaz, J. Randrup, Nucl. Phys. A 540, 227 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    J. Rizzo, P. Chomaz, M. Colonna, Nucl. Phys. A 806, 40 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    P. Napolitani, M. Colonna, Phys. Lett. B 726, 382 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    P. Napolitani, M. Colonna, EPJ Web of Conferences 31, 27 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. Colonna, V. Baran, M. Di Toro, H.H. Wolter, Phys. Rev. C 78, 064618 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    F. Gagnon-Moisan, PhD thesis, Université Paris XI Orsay et Université Laval Québec (2010) http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00491182
  87. 87.
    R. Bougault, G. Poggi, contribution to this Topical IssueGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    F. Gulminelli, G. Poggi, G. Verde, Letter of Intent, SPIRAL2 GANIL (2006) http://fazia.in2p3.fr/documents/LoI_SPIRAL2_ThermoDyn_v7.pdf
  89. 89.
    Final Report of the EURISOL project, (GANIL) appendix A: the physics cases, edited by J. Cornell (2003) http://pro.ganil-spiral2.eu/eurisol
  90. 90.
    G. Lehaut, PhD thesis, Université de Caen (2009) http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00426878
  91. 91.
    G. Lehaut, F. Gulminelli, O. Lopez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 142503 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    H. Xu, M.B. Tsang, T.X. Liu, X.D. Liu, W.G. Lynch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 716 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    M.B. Tsang, W.A. Friedman, C.K. Gelbke, W.G. Lynch, G. Verde et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5023 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    G.A. Souliotis, D.V. Shetty, M. Veselsky, G. Chubarian, L. Trache et al., Phys. Rev. C 68, 024605 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Reverse Collaboration (E. Geraci, M. Bruno, M. D’Agostino, E. De Filippo, A. Pagano et al.), Nucl. Phys. A 732, 173 (2004)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    INDRA and ALADIN Collaborations (A. Le Fèvre, G. Auger, M.L. Begemann-Blaich, N. Bellaize, R. Bittiger et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 162701 (2005)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    A. Botvina, O.V. Lozhkin, W. Traumann, Phys. Rev. C 65, 044610 (2002)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    M.B. Tsang, C.K. Gelbke, X.D. Liu, W.G. Lynch, W.P. Tan et al., Phys. Rev. C 64, 054615 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    C. Das, S. Das Gupta, Nucl. Phys. A 812, 149 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    G. Chaudhuri, S.D. Gupta, M. Mocko, Nucl. Phys. A 813, 293 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    M.B. Tsang, R. Bougault, R. Charity, D. Durand, W.A. Friedman et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 30, 129 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    J. Richert, P. Wagner, Phys. Rep. 350, 1 (2001)ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    G.A. Souliotis, D.V. Shetty, A. Keksis, E. Bell, M. Jandel et al., Phys. Rev. C 73, 024606 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    INDRA Collaboration (A. Chbihi, G. Verde, J.D. Frankland, G. Mukherjee, S. Kundu), in Proceedings of the IWM 2005, International Workshop on Multifragmentation and related topics, edited by B. Borderie, J.D. Frankland, A. Pagano, S. Pirrone, F. Rizzo, SIF Conf. Proc., Vol. 95 (SIF, Bologna, 2008) pp. 277--285Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    D. Cugnon, D. L’Hote, Nucl. Phys. A 397, 519 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J.F. Lecolley, L. Stugge, M. Aboufirassi, A. Badala, B. Bilwes et al., Phys. Lett. B 325, 317 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    INDRA Collaboration (J. Lukasik, J. Benlliure, V. Métivier, E. Plagnol, B. Tamain et al.), Phys. Rev. C 55, 1906 (1997)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    R. Yanez, S. Hudan, R. Alfaro, B. Davin, Y. Larochelle et al., Phys. Rev. C 68, 011602 (2003)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    S. Piantelli, P.R. Maurenzig, A. Olmi, L. Bardelli, A. Bartoli et al., Phys. Rev. C 74, 034609 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • INDRA Collaboration
  • G. Ademard
    • 1
  • B. Borderie
    • 1
  • A. Chbihi
    • 2
  • O. Lopez
    • 3
  • P. Napolitani
    • 1
  • M. F. Rivet
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Boisjoli
    • 2
    • 4
  • E. Bonnet
    • 2
  • R. Bougault
    • 3
  • J. D. Frankland
    • 2
  • E. Galichet
    • 1
    • 5
  • D. Gruyer
    • 2
  • D. Guinet
    • 6
  • M. Kabtoul
    • 3
  • G. Lehaut
    • 3
  • P. Lautesse
    • 7
  • M. La Commara
    • 8
  • N. Le Neindre
    • 3
  • P. Marini
    • 2
  • M. Pârlog
    • 3
  • P. Pawłowski
    • 8
  • E. Rosato
    • 9
  • R. Roy
    • 4
  • G. Spadaccini
    • 9
  • E. Vient
    • 3
  • M. Vigilante
    • 9
  • J. P. Wieleczko
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut de Physique NucléaireCNRS-IN2P3 and Université Paris-Sud 11Orsay cedexFrance
  2. 2.GANIL, CEA-DSM/CNRS-IN2P3Caen cedexFrance
  3. 3.LPC Caen, ENSICAENUniversité de CaenCaen cedexFrance
  4. 4.Université LavalQuébecCanada
  5. 5.Conservatoire National des Arts et MétiersParis cedex 03France
  6. 6.Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UCBLUniversité de LyonVilleurbanne cedexFrance
  7. 7.S2HEP (EA4148), UCBL/ENSLUniversité de LyonVilleurbanneFrance
  8. 8.IFJ-PANKrakówPoland
  9. 9.Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFNUniversità di Napoli “Federico II”NapoliItaly

Personalised recommendations