Regional Research of Russia

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 46–57 | Cite as

Population Dynamics in Towns of Leningrad Oblast: Effects of the Crisis of 2014–2016

  • D. V. Zhitin
  • A. V. Shendrik
Urban Geography


Socioeconomic development in cities and towns is a complex and multifactor phenomenon with various dimensions and evaluation criteria. One of the simplest and most available indicators of a situation in the economic and social sphere is population size dynamics. Using the towns of Leningrad oblast as an example, we analyzed how the 2014–2016 crisis events in the Russian economy affected the population dynamics. Starting from the 1980s, the towns of Leningrad oblast have been developing multidirectionally—in some towns, the population has decreased consistently, while in other towns it has increased; some towns have exhibited stagnation. These differences have been preserved so far, but the rate of increase and decrease in the population, largely driven by migration processes, vary significantly depending on changes in the country’s economy. As a result of the study, we found that the switch in the trend of demographic development amid rapid changes in the rate of economic increase is not peculiar to all towns. We studied different scenarios of the population dynamics in the towns of Leningrad oblast during 2011–2017, and we managed to distinguish several types of urban-type settlements. Based on an analysis of territorial features of the locations of towns, we have proposed an explanation for the differences in their persistence to crisis events in the Russian economy.


population dynamics town socioeconomic development demographic situation natural and migration increase Leningrad oblast economic crisis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aivazyan, S.A., Izmerenie i empiricheskii analiz sinteticheskikh kategorii kachestva zhizni naseleniya (Measurement and Empirical Analysis of Synthetic Categories of the Life Quality of Population), Moscow: Tsentr. Ekon.-Matem. Inst., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anokhin, A.A., Zhitin, D.V., Krasnov, A.I., and Lachininskii, S.S., Modern trends in the dynamics of the population of Russian cities, Vestn. S.-Peterb. Univ., Ser. 7: Geol., Geogr., 2014, no. 4, pp. 167–179.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anokhin, A.A. and Zhitin, D.V., Geografiya naseleniya s osnovami demografii: uchebnoe posobie (Geography of Population with the Basic Demography: Manual), St. Petersburg: S.-Peterb. Gos. Univ., 2013.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Artobolevskii, S.S., Baklanov, P.Ya., and Treivish, A.I., Russia’s space and development: a multiscale analysis, Herald Russ. Acad. Sci., 2009, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Database of indicators of municipalities, Leningrad oblast, Municipal passport, Federal State Statistics Service official website. Accessed May 29, 2017.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Belova, A.V., The role of small and medium-sized towns in solving problems of regional development, Balt. Reg., 2011, no. 1 (7), pp. 126–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bobylev, S.N., Indikatory ustoichivogo razvitiya: regional’noe izmerenie (Sustainable Development Indicators: Regional Aspects), Moscow: Akropol’, 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bobylev, S.N., Zubarevich, N.V., and Solovyeva, S.V., Challenges of the crisis: how to measure sustainable development? Ekon. Reg., 2015, no. 1, pp. 147–160.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bobylev, S.N., Kudryavtseva, O.V., and Solovyeva, S.V., Indicators of sustainable development for cities, Ekon. Reg., 2014, no. 3 (39), pp. 101–110.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    All-Union Population Census of 1989, Vol. 1, Part 1, Table 3: Number of present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous okrugs, and districts, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements and villages-district centers. Accessed May 31, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Granberg, A.G., Modeling the spatial development of the national and global economics: the evolution of approaches, Reg.: Ekon. Sotsiol., 2007, no. 1, pp. 87–107.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gritsai, O.V., Ioffe, G.V., and Treivish, A.I., Tsentr i periferiya v regional’nom razvitii (Center and Periphery in Regional Development), Moscow: Nauka, 1991.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Druzhinin, A.G., Lachininskii, S.S., Krasnov, A.I., and Sorokin, I.S., Polarization of the settlement system in the coastal zone of the Leningrad oblast in 1989–2015, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Sev.-Kavk. Reg., Estestv. Nauki, 2016, no. 3 (191), pp. 58–65.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhitin, D.V., Spatial heterogeneity of the migration flow in Russia in 1991–2010, Vestn. S.-Peterb. Univ., Ser. 7: Geol., Geogr., 2012, no. 4, pp. 135–145.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhitin, D.V., Regional aspects of migration flows in the Russian Federation, Reg. Res. Russ., 2012, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zubarevich, N.V., Sotsial’noe razvitie regionov Rossii: problemy i tendentsii perekhodnogo perioda (Social Development of Russian Regions: Problems and Trends of Transitional Period), Moscow: Librokom, 2013.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuznetsova, O.V., Ekonomicheskoe razvitie regionov: teoreticheskie i prakticheskie aspekty gosudarstvennogo regulirovaniya (Economic Development of Regions: Theoretical and Practical Aspects in State Regulation), Moscow: URSS Editorial, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Optimizatsiya territorial’nykh sistem (Optimization of Territorial Systems), Suspitsyn, S.A., Ed., Novosibirsk: Inst. Ekon. Org. Prom. Proizvod., Sib. Otd., Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2010.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Official website of Federal State Statistics Service in St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast. http://petrostat. Accessed May 29, 2017.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tatarkin, A.I., Dialectics of state and market regulation of socioeconomic development of regions and municipalities, Ekon. Reg., 2014, no. 1, pp. 9–33Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    The size of permanent population in the municipalities of Leningrad oblast by January 1, 2017, Official website of Federal State Statistics Service in St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast. Accessed May 30, 2017.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Atkinson, G., Dubourg, R., Hamilton, K., Munasinghe, M., Pearce, D., and Young, C., Measuring Sustainable Development. Macroeconomics and the Environment, Cheltenham: Edvard Elgar, 1997Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bossel, H., Indicators for Sustainable Development: Theory, Method, Applications. A Report to the Balaton Group, Winnipeg: Int. Inst. Sustainable Dev., 1999.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hamilton, K., Genuine Savings as a Sustainable Indicator, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pearce, D. and Atkinson, G., Capital theory and the measurement of sustainable development: an indicator of “weak” sustainability, Ecol. Econ., 1993, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2011.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Venables, A.J., Spatial disparities in developing countries: cities, regions, and international trade, J. Econ. Geogr., 2005, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vernon Henderson, J.A., Shalizi, Z.B., and Venables, A.J., Geography and development, J. Econ. Geogr., 2001, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 81–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations