The spermatogenous function in the BALB/cLac and DD/He murine inbred lines and their F1 reciprocal crosses


Previously, it was determined that the murine inbred line DD/He has the lowest fraction of mobile and morphologically anomalous spermatozoa as compared with 13 other studied lines. In contrast, the BALB/cLac line is characterized by the highest fraction of mobile and anomalous spermatozoa. It was suggested that a decreased fraction of mobile spermatozoa in the murine DD/He line, as well as a high fraction of anomalous spermatozoa in BALB/cLac are caused by mutations in Y-chromosome genes. In order to test this hypothesis, the mobility and morphology of spermatozoa, as well as the amount of spermatozoa in the caudal epididymis, as well as the weight of the body and testes, were studied in F1 males of DD/He × BALB/cLac and BALB/cLac × DD/He reciprocal crosses. The heterosis effects for all studied traits (except the fraction of mobile spermatozoa) were determined. An influence of parental effects on the fraction of atypical spermatozoa and on the weight of testes was detected, which can indicate the involvement of Y-chromosome gene (genes) in the genetic control if these traits. Maternal effects on the fraction of mobile spermatozoa were found.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Adham, I.M., Eck, T.J., Mierau, K., et al., Reduction of spermatogenesis but not fertility in Creb3l4-deficient mice, Mol. Cell. Biol., 2005, vol. 25, pp. 7657–7664.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Chen, J.C., Molecular mechanisms of polyploidy and hybrid vigor, Trends Plant Sci., 2010, vol. 15, pp. 1–28.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Daev, E.V. and Dukel’skaya, A.V., The female pheromone 2,5-dimethylpyrazine induces sperm-head abnormalities in male CBA mice, Russ. J. Genet., 2003, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 811–815.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Delbridge, M.L. and Graves, J.M., Mammalian Y chromosome evolution and the male-specific functions of Y chromosome-borne genes, Rev. Reprod., 1999, vol. 4, pp. 101–109.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Guzick, D., Overstreet, J., and Factor-Litvak, P., Sperm morphology, motility, and concentration in fertile and infertile men, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, vol. 345, p. 1388.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Hannon, R.M., Meek, H.T., Acosta, W., and Maciel, R.C., Sex-specific heterosis in line crosses of mice selectively bred for high locomotor activity, Behav. Genet., 2011, vol. 41, pp. 615–624.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Harley, V.R., Clarkson, M.J., and Argentaro, A., The molecular action and regulation of the testis-determining factors SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) and SOX9 [SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9], Endocr. Rev., 2003, vol. 24, pp. 466–487.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Kashimada, K. and Koopman, P., Sry: the master switch in mammalian sex determination, Development, 2010, vol. 137, pp. 3921–3930.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Kishikawa, H., Tateno, H., and Yanagimachi, R., Chromosome analysis of BALB/c mouse spermatozoa with normal and abnormal head morphology, Biol. Reprod., 1999, vol. 61, pp. 809–812.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Krzanowska, H., Styrna, J., and Wabik-Sliz, B., Analysis of sperm quality in recombinant inbred mouse strains: correlation of sperm head shape with sperm abnormalities and with the incidence of supplementary spermatozoa in the perivitelline space, J. Reprod. Fertil., 1995, vol. 104, pp. 347–354.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Navarro-Costa, P. and Plancha, C.E., The AZFc region of the Y chromosome: at the crossroads between genetic diversity and male infertility, Hum. Reprod. Update, 2010, vol. 16, pp. 525–542.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Osadchuk, A.V. and Naumenko, E.V., Genetic-endocrine and ethological mechanisms of differential reproduction. I. Comparative genetic analysis of the basal level of testosterone in the blood plasma, the relative weight of the testes and accessory gonads in male laboratory mice, Genetika, 1983, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1265–1273.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Osadchuk, L.V., Tupikin, A.E., Morozov, I.V., et al., Phenotypic variation of spermatogenesis and a search for associations with genetic polymorphism in 13 inbred mouse strains, Russ. J. Genet., 2012, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 823–830.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Styrna, J., Kilarski, W., and Krzanowska, H., Influence of the CBA genetic background on spermmorphology and fertilization efficiency in mice with a partial Y chromosome deletion, Reproduction, 2003, vol. 126, pp. 579–588.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Verhoeven, G., Willems, A., Denolet, E., and Swinnen, V., Androgens and spermatogenesis: lessons from transgenic mouse models, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., 2010, vol. 365, pp. 1537–1556.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Zheng, F. and Yang, P.J., Regulation of male fertility by X-linked genes, J. Androl., 2010, vol. 31, pp. 79–84.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. V. Osadchuk.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © M.A. Kleshchev, A.V. Osadchuk, L.V. Osadchuk, 2013, published in Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genetiki i Selektsii, 2013, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 123–128.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kleshchev, M.A., Osadchuk, A.V. & Osadchuk, L.V. The spermatogenous function in the BALB/cLac and DD/He murine inbred lines and their F1 reciprocal crosses. Russ J Genet Appl Res 3, 287–290 (2013).

Download citation


  • murine inbred lines
  • spermatogenesis
  • reciprocal crossings