Contemporary Problems of Ecology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 250–254 | Cite as

Threshold environmental concentrations of cations determining the boundaries of survival of the filamentous alga Spirogyra sp. in freshwater reservoirs

  • V. I. Martem’yanovEmail author
  • A. S. Mavrin


The threshold concentrations of elements in fresh water necessary for the survival of Spirogira sp. were determined. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the algae were maintained at a level of (84.3 ± 0.8), (23.9 ± 0.5), (3.5 ± 0.2), (8.5 ± 0.2) mmol/kg wet weight, respectively; the water content was (92.5 ± 0.21)%. It was shown that the threshold concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in water determining the boundaries of the range of Spirogyra sp. in freshwater reservoirs are 0.003–0.007, 0.002–0.003, 0.0017–0.0022, and 0.0012–0.0018 mmol/L, respectively. A decrease in water mineralization was accompanied by a substantial increase in the gradient of cation concentration between the algae and the environment, thus enhancing the load on the systems maintaining water-salt metabolism. It was shown on the basis of comparative analysis that Spirogyra sp., being the primary link of the trophic chain, possesses a more efficient ability to extract ions from water in comparison to freshwater animals.


range Spirogyra sp. sodium potassium calcium magnesium 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Pottosin, I.I., Tikhonova, L.I., Hedrich, R., and Schonknecht, G., Slowly Activating Vacuolar Ion Channel Cannot Mediate Ca2+-Induced Ca2+ Release, Plant J., 1997, vol. 12, pp. 1387–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tikhonova, L.I., Pottosin, I.I., Dietz, K.-J., and Schonknecht, G., Fast-Activating Cation Channel in Barley Mesophyll Vacuoles. Inhibition by Calcium, Plant J., 1997, vol. 11, pp. 1059–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lavon, R. and Goldschmidt, E.E., Effect of Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiencies on Nitrogen Constituents and Chloroplast Components in Citrus Leaves, J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 1999, vol. 124, pp. 158–162.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shabala, S.N. and Newman, I.A., Light-Induced Transient Changes in Hydrogen, Calcium, Potassium, and Chloride Ion Fluxes and Concentrations from the Mesophyll and Epidermal Tissues of Bean Leaves. Understanding the Ionic Basis of Light-Induced Bioelectrogenesis, Plant Physiol., 1999, vol. 119, pp. 1115–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fischer, E.S., Photosynthetic Irradiance Curves of Phaseolus Vulgaris Under Moderate Or Severe Magnesium Deficiency, Photosynthetica, 1997, vol. 33, pp. 385–390.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun, O.J. and Payn, T.W. Magnesium Nutrition and Photosynthesis in Pinus Radiata: Clonal Variation and Influence of Potassium, Tree Physiol., 1999, vol. 19, pp. 535–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ridolfi, M. and Garrec, J.-P., Consequences of an Excess Al and a Deficiency in Ca and Mg for Stomatal Functioning and Net Carbon Assimilation of Beech Leaves, Ann. For. Sci., 2000, vol. 57, pp. 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shabala, S. and Hariadi, Y., Effects of Magnesium Availability on the Activity of Plasma Membrane Ion Transporters and Light-Induced Responses from Broad Bean Leaf Mesophyll, Planta, 2005, vol. 221, pp. 56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shaul, O., Magnesium Transport and Function in Plants: the Tip of the Iceberg, BioMetals, 2002, vol. 15, pp. 309–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cakmak, I., Activity of Ascorbate-Dependent H2O2-Scavenging Enzymes and Leaf Chlorosis Are Enhanced in Magnesium- and Potassium-Deficient Leaves, But Not in Phosphorus-Deficient Leaves, J. Exp. Bot., 1994, vol. 278, pp. 1259–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cakmak, I., Hengeler, C., and Marschner, H., Changes in Phloem Export of Sucrose in Leaves in Response to Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium Deficiency in Bean Plants, J. Exp. Bot., vol. 278, pp. 1251–1257.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Allen, G.J. and Sanders, D., Vacuolar Ion Channels of Higher Plants, Adv. Bot. Res., 1997, vol. 25, pp. 218–252.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bruggemann, L.I., Pottosin, I.I., and Schonknecht, G., Cytoplasmic Magnesium Regulates the Fast Activating Cation Channel, J. Exp. Bot., 1999, vol. 50, pp. 1547–1552.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pei, Z.M., Ward, J.M., and Schroeder, J.I., Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles, Plant. Physiol., 1999, vol. 121, pp. 977–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pottosin, I.I. and Muniz, J., Higher Plant Vacuolar Ionic Transport in the Cellular Context, Acta Bot. Mex, 2002, vol. 60, pp. 37–77.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vinogradov, G.A., Protsessy ionnoi regulyatsii u presnovodnykh ryb i bespozvonochnykh (Processes of Ionic Regulation in Freshwater Fishes and Invertebrates), Moscow, 2000.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinogradov, G.A. and Biochino, G.I., Physiological characteristics of mollusks Dreissena polymorpha (Pall.) and Dreissena bugensis (Andr.), found in the Rybinsk Reservoir, Biol. Vnutr. Vod, 2005, no. 3, pp. 74–78.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vinogradov, G.A., Klerman, A.K., and Komov, V.T., Features of the Ion Exchange of Freshwater Mussels in a High Concentration of Hydrogen Ions And a Low Salinity Environment, Ekologiya, 1987, no. 3, pp. 81–84.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vinogradov, G.A. and Komov, V.T., Ion exchange of a crucian carp and a carp in the acclimation to low salinity water, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1988, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 124–131.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martem’yanov, V.I., The Role of Ionic Transport System in a Dreissena Distribution, in Dreissenidy: Evolyutsiya, Sistematika, Ekologiya: Lektsii I Mat-Ly Dokl. I Mezhdunar. Shkoly-Konferentsii, (Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Dreissenideae: Evolution, Sistematics, and Ecology: Lectures and Abstracts of Papers), Borok, 2008, pp. 93–97.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martem’yanov, V.I. and Mavrin, A.S., Threshold Concentrations of Cations in the Environment defining an areal of a crawfish in fresh water bodies, Ekologiya vodnykh bespozvonochnykh: sb. mat-lov Mezhdunar. konf., posvyashchennoi 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya F.D. Mordukhai-Boltovskogo (Ecology of Aquatic Invertebrates: Proc. of the Int. Conf. Dedicated to Centenary of F. D. Mordukhai-Boltovskii’s birth), Yaroslavl, 2010, pp. 195–198.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Martem’yanov, V.I. and Mavrin, A.S., Threshold Concentrations of Cations in Fresh Water Required to Maintain Ionic Balance Between an Aquatic Organism and the Environment, in Sovremennye problemy fiziologii i biokhimii vodnykh organizmov. Ekologicheskaya fiziologiya i biokhimiya vodnykh organizmov (Modern Problems of Aquatic Organism’s Physiology and Biochemistry), Petrozavodsk, 2010, vol. 1, pp. 146–150.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland WatersRussian Academy of SciencesBorok, Yaroslavl oblastRussia

Personalised recommendations