High Rate of Endoparasites (Helminth) Infection of Toad (Anurans) in the Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


The results emphasise the significance of further studies in the Dir Lower to get well understanding of the helminth parasites with ecological relations of their hosts. Twenty-seven specimens of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864) (Anura: Bufonidae) were collected in the Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the period from April to August 2016, and examined for helminths (endoparasites) parasites. Twelve (44.44%) specimens were infected by two types of helminths parasites. Total of forty-one helminths parasites were collected, among them six were identified Cestode and the remaining thirty-five were nematodes. The dominant parasites were nematodes (Cosmocerca sp. with 56.09% followed by Cosmocercoides sp. with 29.26%). But the Cestodes were found with single species (Nematotania dispar with 14.63%). Female toads showed higher parasite diversity than male toads.

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The first author is grateful to the Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Pakistan for providing laboratory facilities.

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Correspondence to A. Baset.

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Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

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Khan, A.U., Attaullah, M., Khan, W. et al. High Rate of Endoparasites (Helminth) Infection of Toad (Anurans) in the Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Inland Water Biol 14, 121–124 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995082921010041

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  • helminths parasites
  • Bufo stomaticus
  • biometry
  • Dir Lower and Pakistan