The results emphasise the significance of further studies in the Dir Lower to get well understanding of the helminth parasites with ecological relations of their hosts. Twenty-seven specimens of Bufo stomaticus (Lutken, 1864) (Anura: Bufonidae) were collected in the Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan in the period from April to August 2016, and examined for helminths (endoparasites) parasites. Twelve (44.44%) specimens were infected by two types of helminths parasites. Total of forty-one helminths parasites were collected, among them six were identified Cestode and the remaining thirty-five were nematodes. The dominant parasites were nematodes (Cosmocerca sp. with 56.09% followed by Cosmocercoides sp. with 29.26%). But the Cestodes were found with single species (Nematotania dispar with 14.63%). Female toads showed higher parasite diversity than male toads.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Akani, G.C., Luiselli, L., Amuzie, C.C., and Wokem, G.N., Helminth community structure and diet of three Afrotropical anuran species: a test of the interactive-versus-isolationist parasite communities' hypothesis, Web Ecol., 2011, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 11–19.
Akbar, H., Rafi, M.A., Attaullah, M., et al., Diversity of carpenter bee fauna (Xylocopa spp.) in DIR lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, J. Pharm. Sci., 2019, vol. 6, no. 10.
Arenas Chaves, L.M., Dietary specialization predicts toxicity in recently diverged lineages of poison frogs, MSc Thesis, Bogotá-Uniandes, 2010.
Blaustein, A.R., Gervasi, S.S., Johnson, et al., Ecophysiology meets conservation: understanding the role of disease in amphibian population declines, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., B, 2012, vol. 367, no. 1596, pp. 1688–1707.
Boulenger, G.A., The Tailless Batrachians of Europe, London: Ray Soc., 1897, vol. 74.
Bursey, C.R., Goldberg, S.R., and Parmelee, J.R., Gastrointestinal helminths of 51 species of anurans from Reserva Cuzco Amazónico, Peru, Comp. Parasitol., 2001, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 21–35.
Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P.R., and Dirzo, R., Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2017, vol. 114, no. 30, pp. E6089–E6096.
Clark, E., The order and simplicity of gentrification ication—a political challenge, in Gentrification in a Global Context, London: Routledge, 2005, chap. 16.
Comas, M. and Ribas, A., Why are the prevalence and diversity of helminths in the endemic Pyrenean brook newt Calotriton asper (Amphibia, Salamandridae) so low?, J. Helminthol., 2015, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 175–181.
Crump, M. and Fenolio, D.B., Eye of Newt and Toe of Frog, Adder’s Fork and Lizard’s Leg: the Lore and Mythology of Amphibians and Reptiles, Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 2015.
Densmore, C.L. and Green, D.E., Diseases of amphibians, Ilar J., 2007, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 235–254.
Dorny, P., Praet, N., Deckers, N., and Gabriel, S., Emerging food-borne parasites, Vet. Parasitol., 2009, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 196–206.
Düşen, S. and Öz, M., Helminths of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771 (Anura: Ranidae), from Antalya Province, southwestern Turkey, Comp. Parasitol., 2006, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 121–129.
Goldberg, S.R. and Bursey, C.R., Helminths from 10 species of brachycephalid frogs (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from Costa Rica, Comp. Parasitol., 2008, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 255–262.
Goldberg, S.R., Bursey, C.R., and Kraus, F., Endoparasites in 12 species of Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea, Comp. Parasitol., 2009, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 58–83.
Imasuen, A.A., Ozemoka, H.J., and Aisien, M.S., Anurans as intermediate and paratenic hosts of helminth infections in the rainforest and derived savanna biotopes of southern Nigeria, Int. J. Zool., 2012, vol. 2012, art. ID 823970.
Imkongwapang, R., Jyrwa, D.B., Lal, P., and Tandon, V., A checklist of helminth parasite fauna in anuran Amphibia (frogs) of Nagaland, Northeast India, J. Parasit. Dis., 2014, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 85–100.
Johnson, P.T., and McKenzie, V.J., Effects of environmental change on helminth infections in amphibians: exploring the emergence of Ribeiroia and Echinostoma infections in North America, in The Biology of Echinostomes, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 249–280.
Johnson, P.T., Sutherland, D.R., Kinsella, J.M., and Lunde, K.B., Review of the trematode genus Ribeiroia (Psilostomidae): ecology, life history and pathogenesis with special emphasis on the amphibian malformation problem, Adv. Parasitol., 2004, vol. 57, pp. 191–253.
Karakaş, M., Helminth parasites of Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda and Hyla arborea collected from the different regions of Turkey, Manas J. Agricult. Vet. Life Sci., 2015, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–6.
Khalid, S. and Attaullah, M., Waris A, et al., Diversity and distribution of lizard fauna in tehsil Samar Bagh, Dir lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Int. J. Fauna Biol. Stud., 2019, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 20–25.
Khan, F., Hayat, Z., Ahmad, W., et al., Effect of slope position on physico-chemical properties of eroded soil, Soil Environ., 2013, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 32.
Khan, A.U., Attaullah, M., Khan, W., et al., Food habits and helminth parasites of skittering frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) in the Lower Dir, Pakistan, J. Zool. Res., 2020, vol. 65, p. 65881289.
Koprivnikar, J., Marcogliese, D.J., Rohr, J.R., et al., Macroparasite infections of amphibians: what can they tell us?, EcoHealth, 2012, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 342–360.
Kühn, S., Rebolledo, E.L.B., and van Franeker, J.A., Deleterious effects of litter on marine life, in Marine Anthropogenic Litter, Cham: Springer-Verlag, 2015, pp. 75–116.
McAllister, C.T., Bursey, C.R., Robison, H.W., and Connior, M.B., Parasites of the Ozark zig-zag salamander, Plethodon angusticlavius (Caudata: Plethodontidae), from northern Arkansas, Comp. Parasitol., 2013, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 69–79.
Mohammad, M.K., Al-Moussawi, A.A., and Jasim, S.Y., Helminth parasites of the green toad Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Baghdad area, Central Iraq, Egypt. Acad. J. Biol. Sci. B, 2010, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 17–25.
Morrison, C., Impacts of tourism on threatened species in the Pacific region: a review, Pac. Conserv. Biol., 2012, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 227–238.
Noble, S.G., Forty Years of the Public Schools in Mississippi: With Special Reference to the Education of the Negro, New York: Teachers Coll., Columbia Univ., 1918.
Parker, D.M., Cooke, W.J., and Balazs, G.H., Diet of oceanic loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the central north pacific, Fish. Bull., 2005, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 142–152.
Portik, D.M. and Papenfuss, T.J., Historical biogeography resolves the origins of endemic Arabian toad lineages (Anura: Bufonidae): evidence for ancient vicariance and dispersal events with the Horn of Africa and South Asia, BMC Evol. Biol., 2015, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 152.
Rizvi, A.N. and Bhutia, P.T., Studies on the Helminth Parasites of District Dehradun, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occ. Paper vol. 355, Kolkata: Zool. Survey India, 2014, pp. 1–40.
O’Rourke, D.P. and Rosenbaum, M.D., Biology and diseases of amphibians, in Laboratory Animal Medicine, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015.
Sabagh, L.T. and Carvalho-e-Silva, A.M., Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) of the Atlantic rain forest, Rev. Bras. Zool., 2008, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 247–253.
Sarwar, M.K., Malik, M.F., Hussain, M., Azam, I., and Ashiq, U., Distribution and current status of amphibian fauna of Pakistan: a review, Electron. J. Biol., 2016, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 243–246.
Vaughan, S. and Harris, M., Converging opportunities: environmental compliance and citizen science, Chin. J. Urban Environ. Stud., 2014, vol. 2, no. 01, p. 1450001.
Vhora, M.S., A Seasonal and Comparative Study of Helminth Parasites in Some Anurans from Oklahoma, Stillwater, OK: Oklahoma State Univ., 2012.
Vitt, L.J. and Caldwell, J.P., Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014, 4th ed.
Wright, L., The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, New York: Alfred Knopf, 2006.
The first author is grateful to the Department of Zoology, University of Malakand, Pakistan for providing laboratory facilities.
Conflict of interests. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Statement on the welfare of animals. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
About this article
Cite this article
Khan, A.U., Attaullah, M., Khan, W. et al. High Rate of Endoparasites (Helminth) Infection of Toad (Anurans) in the Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Inland Water Biol 14, 121–124 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995082921010041
- helminths parasites
- Bufo stomaticus
- Dir Lower and Pakistan