Inland Water Biology

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 407–416 | Cite as

New Subspecies of Twaite Shad Alosa fallax balticus (Clupeidae)

  • E. I. Kukuev
  • A. M. OrlovEmail author


We have carried out a comparative analysis of the morphological features of Twaite shad Alosa fallax based on our own data (Curonian Lagoon, Baltic Sea (2008 and 2009)) and comparative materials (collections of Russian and foreign natural history museums, including published data). The results of this study allow us to assign the Baltic Sea population of Twaite shad to the taxonomic status of subspecies Alosa fallax balticus subsp. nov. The Baltic Sea subspecies differs from other subspecies of Atlantic Twaite shad A. fallax by a lower number of gill rakers (mean 36.7) and vertebrae (53.6) and larger pre dorsal distance (46.2% SL or 41.6–42.7% TL). A. fallax balticus is one of the subspecies that have the lowest number of gill rakers on the first gill arch among subspecies of the species Alosa fallax in the northeastern Atlantic and seas of its basins.


Baltic Sea Twaite shad Alosa fallax balticus subsp. nov. new subspecies morphology description Curonian Lagoon Baltic Sea 



  1. 1.
    Berg, L.S., Ryby presnykh vod SSSR i sopredel’nykh stran (Freshwater Fishes of the USSR and Adjacent Countries), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1948.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Viler, A., Opredelitel’ ryb morskikh i presnykh vod Severo-Evropeiskogo basseina (Guide to Marine and Freshwater Fishes of the North European Basin), Moscow: Legkaya Pishchevaya Prom-st', 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Golubkova, T.A., Shul’ga, A.D., and Karpushevskaya, E.M., The current state of the spawning stock of Atlantic twaite shad (Alosa fallax fallax Lacépède, 1803) in the Curonian Lagoon of the Baltic Sea, in Promyslovo-biologicheskie issledovaniya AtlantNIRO v 2006–2007 gg.: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov (Commercial-Biological Studies Performed by AtlantNIRO in 2006–2007: Collected Scientific Papers), Kaliningrad: Atl. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2009, pp. 106–113.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krasnaya kniga Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Zhivotnye (The Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. Animals), Moscow: Astrel’, 2001, p. 908.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kukuev, E.I., Paradoxical herring twaite shad, Balt. Rybolov, 2008, no. 6, pp. 22–24.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kukuev, E.I., Ikhtiologicheskie ocherki o rybakh izvestnykh i maloizvestnykh (Ichthyologic Essays About Known and Little-Known Fishes), Kaliningrad: Atl. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2014.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kukuev, E.I., The species composition and zoogeographical structure of marine ichthyofauna of the Baltic Sea, in Promyslovo-biologicheskie issledovaniya AtlantNIRO v 2010–2013 gg., vol. 1: Baltiiskoe more i zalivy (Baltic Sea and Bays), Kaliningrad: Atl. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2014, pp. 19–28.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kukuev, E.I., Sukhovershin, V.V., Gushchin, A.V., and Sukhorukova, V.S., Some morphological characteristics of twaite shad (Alosa fallax) of the Southern Baltic Sea, in Promyslovo-biologicheskie issledovaniya AtlantNIRO v 2006–2007 gg.: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov (Commercial-Biological Studies Performed by AtlantNIRO in 2006–2007: Collected Scientific Papers), Kaliningrad: Atl. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2009, pp. 99–106.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kukhorenko, K.G. and Tylik, K.V., Ryby Baltiki i zalivov (Kaliningradskii region) (Fishes of the Baltic Sea and Bays (Kaliningrad Region)), Kaliningrad: Terra-Baltika, 2013.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manyukas, I., Biology of Atlantic twaite shad (Alosa fallax fallax) in the Curonian Lagoon, Vopr. Ikhtiol., 1989, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 866–869.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mezhzherin, S.V., Fedorenko, L.V., and Verlatyi, D.B., Differentiation and allozyme variability of shads genus Alosa (Clupeiformes, Alosiinae) from Azov–Black Sea basin, Cytol. Genet., 2009, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mitenkova, L.V., Studies of mitochondrial DNA of twaite shad Alosa fallax from Baltic and North seas, in Materialy Vtoroi nauchnoi shkoly molodykh uchenykh i spetsialistov po rybnomu khozyaistvu i ekologii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem, posvyashchennoi 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya I.B. Birmana “Kompleksnye issledovaniya vodnykh biologicheskikh resursov i sredy ikh obitaniya” (Proceedings of the Second Scientific School of Young Scientists and Experts in Fisheries and Ecology with International Participation Dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of I.B. Birman “Complex Studies of Marine Biological Resources and Their Environment”), Moscow: Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Ryb. Khoz. Okeanogr., 2015, p. 44.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parin, N.V., Evseenko, S.A., and Vasil’eva, E.D., Ryby morei Rossii. Annotirovannyi katalog (Fishes of Russian Seas: An Annotated Catalogue), Moscow: Tovar. Nauch. Izd. KMK, 2014.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Svetovidov, A.N., Herrings (Clupeidae), in Fauna SSSR. Ryby (Fauna of the USSR. Fishes), Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1952.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Svetovidov, A.N., Ryby Chernogo morya (Fishes of the Black Sea), Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1964.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tylik, K.V., Ikhtiofauna Kalinigradskoi Oblasti (Ichthyofauna of the Kaliningrad Oblast), Kaliningrad: Kaliningr. Gos. Tekh. Univ., 2003.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tylik, K.V., Ryby transgranichnykh vodoemov Rossii i Litvy (Fishes of Transboundary Waters of Russia and Lithuania), Kaliningrad: Kaliningr. Gos. Tekh. Univ., 2007.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khlebovich, V.V., Kriticheskaya solenost' biologicheskikh protsessov (Critical Salinity of Biological Processes), Leningrad: Nauka, 1974.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aprahamian, M.W., Aprahamian, C.D., Bagliniêre, J.L., et al., Alosa alosa and Alosa fallax spp. Literature Review and Bibliography, R&D Technical Report W1-014/TR, Bristol: Environment Agency et al., 2003.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alexandrino, P., Faria, R., Linhares, D., et al., Interspecific differentiation and intraspecific substructure in two closely related clupeids with extensive hybridization, Alosa alosa and Alosa fallax, J. Fish. Biol., 2006, vol. 69, suppl. B, pp. 242–259.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bianco, P.G., The status of the twaite shad, Alosa agone, Italy and the western Balkans, P.S.Z.N. Ecol., 2002, vol. 23, suppl. 1, pp. 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bianco, P.G., An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 2014, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 62–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bobori, D.C., Koutrakis, E.T., and Economidis, P.S., Shad species in Greek waters—a historical overview and present status, Bull. Fr. Pêche Piscic., 2001, vols. 362/363, pp. 1101–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Heritage, Bern: Council of Europe, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cuvier, G. and Valenciennes, A., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome quatrième. Livre quatrième. Des acanthoptérygiens à joue cuirassée, Bertrand; Paris: Hist. Nat. Poiss., 1829, i–xxvi + 518 p. + Pls. 72–99.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ehrenbaum, E., Mitteilungen über die Lebensverhältnisse unserer Fische. 17. Die Maifischarten. Der Fischerbote 17 und 18, 1921, pp. 681–726, 726–731.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ehrenbaum, E., Naturgeschichte und wirtschaftliche Bedeutung der Seefische Nordeuropas, Stuttgart: Schweitzerbart, 1936.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Faria, R., Weiss, S., and Alexandrino, P., Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax) inferred from mitochondrial DNA, BMC Evol. Biol., 2012, vol. 12, paper ID 194. doi 10.1186/1471-2148-12-194Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fatio, V., Faune des Vertébrés de la Suisse—Histoire naturelle des Poissons, Deuxième partie: Physostomes (suite et fin), Anacanthiens, Chondrostéens, Cyclostomes, Genève et Bâle: H. Georg, 1890.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fishes of Estonia, Tallinn: Estonian Acad. Publ., 2003.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Freyhof, J. and Kottelat, M., The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008, e.T904A13092303. Downloaded January 19, 2016. doi 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008. RLTS.T904A13092303.enGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Froese, R. and Pauly, D., FishBase. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 2016., version 01/2016.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Georffroy Saint-Hilaire, E., Poissons du Nil, in Description de l’Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Egypte pendant l’expédition de l’armé française. 1, Poissons, Paris: Panckoucke, 1808, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kottelat, M., European freshwater fishes, Biologia, 1997, vol. 52, pp. 1–271.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kottelat, M. and Freyhof, J., Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes, Berlin: Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, 2007.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    King, J. and Roche, W.R., Aspects of anadromous allis shad (Alosa alosa Linnaeus) and twaite shad (Alosa fallax Lacépède) biology in four Irish Special Areas of Conservation (SACS): status, spawning indications and implications for conservation designation, in Fish and Diadromy in Europe, Hydrobiologia, 2008, vol. 602, pp. 145–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Maksimov, Y., The “revival” of the Twaite shad (Alosa fallax, Lacépède, 1803) population in the Curonian Lagoon, Bull. Sea Fish. Inst., 2004, no. 1 (161), pp. 61–62.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moog, D.N., Populations genetische Differenzierung der Baltischen Finte (Alosa fallax, Lacépède, 1803) mit mitochondrialen und nukleären Markern, Masterarbeit im Master-Studiengang Diversität and Evolution, Rostok: Universität Rostok, 2014.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lacépède, B.G.E., Histoire naturelle des poisons, Paris: Plassan, 1803, vol. 5.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Regan, C.T., The British fishes of the subfamily Clupeinae and the related species in other seas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 8, 1916, vol. 18, pp. 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Roule, L., Les aloses des eaux douces de la France, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 1924, vol. 49, pp. 265–266.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rakaj, N. and Crivelli, A.J., Occurrence of Agone Alosa agone in Lake Shkodra, Albania in sympatry with Twaite shad Alosa fallax nilotica, Bull. Fr. Pêche Pisc., 2001, vols. 362/363, pp. 1067–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sabatie, R., Bagliniere, J.L., and Boisneau, P., Shad of the Northeastern Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean: biology, ecology, and harvesting, in Fisheries and Aquaculture, Paris: UNESCO-EOLSS, 2009, vol. 3, pp. 93–118.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith, F.A., A History of Scandinavian Fishes, Stockholm: Norstedt and Sons, 1895, part 2, pp. 567–1240.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Svetovidov, A.N., Clupeidae, in Check-List of the Fishes of the North-Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean (CLOFNAM), Paris: UNESCO, 1973, vol. 1, pp. 99–109.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Plikas, M. and Aleksejevs, E., Latvias Daba, Riga: Zivis, 1998.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thiel, R., Riel, P., Neumann, R., et al., Return of twaite shad Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803) to the Southern Baltic Sea and the transitional area between the Baltic and North Seas, in Fish and Diadromy in Europe, Hydrobiologia, 2008, vol. 602, pp. 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureau, J.-C., et al., Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Paris: UNESCO, 1984, vol. 1.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Whitehead, P.J.P., Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei), in FAO Species Catalogue, FAO Fisheries Synopsis no. 125, Rome: FAO, 1985, vol. 7, part 1.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and OceanographyKaliningradRussia
  2. 2.Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and OceanographyMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Dagestan State UniversityMakhachkalaRussia
  5. 5.Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussia
  6. 6.Caspian Institute of Biological Resources, Dagestan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of SciencesMakhachkalaRussia

Personalised recommendations