The effect that nickel, copper, and zinc salts have on seed germination and initial ontogenesis of water parsnip (Sium latifolium L.) and wood club-rush (Scirpus silvaticus L.)


The effect that nickel, copper, and zinc sulfates have on seed germination and the initial stages of the ontogenesis of water parsnip and wood club-rush has been investigated. Nickel and copper in the concentration range of 250–500 mg/l and zinc at a concentration of 500 mg/l were the most toxic for water parsnip seeds, while, for the wood club-rush seeds, maximum toxicity was observed at Ni and Cu concentrations ranging from 50 to 500 mg/l and at Zn concentrations of 250–500 mg/l. The development of water parsnip seedlings was normal at Ni concentrations of 1–25 mg/l, Cu concentrations of 1–10 mg/l, and Zn concentrations up to 50 mg/l; the development of wood club-rush seedlings was normal at a Ni concentration of 1 mg/l, and Cu and Zn concentrations of 1–25 mg/l. A further increase in the concentration caused photosynthesis suppression, slower growth of the vegetation organs, and their subsequent necrosis. Water parsnip is more resistant to the toxicants.

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Correspondence to E. G. Krylova.

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Original Russian Text © E.G. Krylova, 2011, published in Biologiya Vnutrennikh Vod, No. 4, 2011, pp. 72–78.

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Krylova, E.G. The effect that nickel, copper, and zinc salts have on seed germination and initial ontogenesis of water parsnip (Sium latifolium L.) and wood club-rush (Scirpus silvaticus L.). Inland Water Biol 4, 468–474 (2011).

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  • nickel, copper, and zinc sulfates
  • water parsnip
  • wood club-rush
  • seed germination
  • seedling development