Accumulation of corticosterone and interleukin-1β in the hippocampus after focal ischemic damage of the neocortex: Selective vulnerability of the ventral hippocampus
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Most ischemic strokes are caused by the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO), which results in focal brain lesions in different areas of the neocortex. Secondary damage develops in brain regions located out of the infarct area, including the hippocampus. Hippocampal lesion may lead to cognitive impairments and post-stroke depression. Here, we studied the time course of changes in the levels of corticosterone and proinflammatory cytokine interleukine-1β (IL-1β) in the blood and hippocampus of rats after transient focal brain ischemia. Activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis, which causes a release of corticosterone into blood, was observed at the early stage after MCAO and was accompanied by the presence of the stress hormone in the hippocampi of both the ischemic and contralateral hemispheres. We show for the first time that this effect was observed only in the ventral hippocampus (VH) but not in the dorsal hippocampus (DH). MCAO induced accumulation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, which coexisted with the elevated level of corticosterone at the early and delayed stages after reperfusion and was also observed in the VH of both hemispheres. Our data show that the VH is more vulnerable to remote damage induced by MCAO compared to the DH and corticosteroid response and neuroinflammation may be detected in the VH of both ischemic and contralateral hemispheres.
Keywordsischemic stroke dorsal hippocampus ventral hippocampus corticosterone proinflammatory cytokines
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