Neurochemical Journal

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 45–55 | Cite as

Central cholinergic systems in the mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning: Diverse pathways of synaptic reorganization in vivo

  • E. I. ZakharovaEmail author
  • E. L. Germanova
  • R. A. Kopaladze
  • A. M. Dudchenko
Experimental Articles


We studied the effects of single moderate hypobaric hypoxia (HBH, 10% O2, 60 min) on the central cholinergic systems. For this purpose, we determined the activity of the marker of cholinergic neurons choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the protein content in subfractions of synaptic membranes and synaptoplasm, which were isolated from the “light” and “heavy” synaptosomes of the pons varolii and medulla oblondata (“pontomedulla”), neocortex, and hippocampus. Experiments were performed with intact rats and rats with low and high resistance to hypoxia that first underwent severe hypobaric hypoxia (4% O2). We found that HBH influenced the synaptic pool of the pontomedulla in all groups of rats, the neocortex in groups of intact and highly resistant rats, and the hippocampus in neither group. HBH affected cytosolic and membrane-bound ChAT and proteins; the changes depended on the group of rats. We reviewed the role of cytosolic and membrane-bound ChAT in the regulation of exchange and secretion of acetylcholine in vitro. We show that in vivo acute adaptation (1) in the intact brain via transformation of cholinergic synaptic pool, which is associated with the formation and activation of contacts of the hypoxia-resistant morphological type; (2) occurs via inhibition of cholinergic activity in different populations of synapses and reduction of non-cholinergic, presumably GABAergic, populations in the brains of poorly and highly resistant rats. Our study demonstrates (1) numerous varieties of plastic possibilities of the brain and (2) one of natural mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning of the intact brain, viz., the formation and activation of morphological hypoxia-resistant cholinergic synapses in the pontomedulla and neocortex.


preconditioning moderate hypobaric hypoxia intact rats rats with low and high resistance to hypoxia pontomedulla neocortex hippocampus cholinergic systems subfractions of synaptic membranes and synapto-plasm membrane-bound and cytosolic choline acetyltransferase 


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. I. Zakharova
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • E. L. Germanova
    • 1
  • R. A. Kopaladze
    • 1
  • A. M. Dudchenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of General Pathology and PathophysiologyRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.MoscowRussia

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