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Neurochemical Journal

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 89–99 | Cite as

Extracellular matrix molecules, their receptors, and extracellular proteases as synaptic plasticity modulators

  • I. V. Mukhina
  • S. A. Korotchenko
  • A. E. Dityatev
Review Articles

Abstract

Brain cells release various molecules that accumulate in the extracellular space and form the extracellular matrix (ECM). Interactions between cells and the ECM play a crucial role in cell migration and the navigation of growth cones during early brain development, whereas the mature ECM in the form of perineuronal nets restrains structural plasticity in the late postnatal period. On the other hand, the majority of perineuronal net components and many other ECM molecules support functional plasticity in the mature brain, the most studied form of which is long-term potentiation. This review provides an overview of domain structure and function of ECM molecules, their receptors and extracellular proteases, which regulate the induction and maintenance of synaptic modifications. It is stressed that neural activity-dependent secretion and activation of proteases leads to local digestion of ECM molecules and the liberation of signaling fragments. These processes regulate the dynamics of postsynaptic receptors, the actin cytoskeleton, dendritic spine growth and the formation of dendritic filopodia.

Keywords

extracellular matrix perineuronal net brain receptors proteases plasticity 

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. V. Mukhina
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • S. A. Korotchenko
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • A. E. Dityatev
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny NovgorodNizhny NovgorodRussia
  2. 2.Nizhny Novgorod State Medical AcademyNizhny NovgorodRussia
  3. 3.Italian Institute of TechnologyGenovaItaly
  4. 4.Nizhnii NovgorodRussia

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