Forced convection heat transfer characteristics of a torus (maintained at a constant temperature) immersed in a streaming fluid normal to the plane of the torus are studied numerically. The governing equations, namely, continuity, momentum and thermal energy in toroidal coordinate system, are solved using a finite difference method over ranges of parameters (aspect ratio of torus, 1.4 ≤ Ar ≤ 20; Reynolds number, 20 ≤ Re ≤ 40; Prandtl number, 0.7 ≤ Pr ≤ 10). Over the ranges of parameters considered herein, the nature of flow is assumed to be steady. In particular, numerical results elucidating the influence of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and aspect ratio on the isotherm patterns, local and average Nusselt numbers for the constant temperature (on the surface of the torus) boundary condition. As expected, at large aspect ratio the flow pattern and heat transfer are similar to the case of flow and heat transfer over a single circular cylinder.
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Moshkin, N.P., Sompong, J. & Suwannasri, P. Numerical study of flow and heat transfer from a torus placed in a uniform flow. J. Engin. Thermophys. 22, 122–133 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1810232813020045
- Heat Transfer
- Reynolds Number
- Nusselt Number
- Prandtl Number
- Circular Cylinder