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Mineral–Geochemical Features of Paleoproterozoic Gold–Copper–Sulfide, Noble Metal-Copper–Uranium, and Noble-Metal–Copper–Uranium–Vanadium Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Karelia


Gold–copper–sulfide, noble-metal–copper–uranium and noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium mineralization in Paleoproterozoic structures of the Karelian Craton is associated with the evolution of the large regional Lapland–Onega rift structure in the Svecofennian. A characteristic feature of the deposits and ore occurrences that formed at the orogenic stage is the appearance of selenium minerals. On the territory of Karelia, ore objects of the separate Onega, Kumsinskaya, Pergubskaya, Severo-Vygozero, Lekhta and Elmozersko-Segozero structures were studied and materials on the ore mineralization of Paana-Kuolajarvi structure were generalized. The element concentrations in ores and near-ore metasomatites were determined by ICP-MS analysis, and the contents of individual elements was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ore minerals were studied by scanning electron microscopy. It has been established that the ores of the studied deposits and ore occurrences are represented by a geochemical assemblage of elements, including Cu, Au, Ag, Pb, Mo, Pd, Pt, Co, Ni, U, Se, Bi, Te, As, V, REE, Ba, and Fe ( in various proportions). Vein-disseminated ore mineralization is accompanied by low-temperature metasomatites: alkaline (albitites, eisites), ferromagnesian, mica or beresites, confined to deformation zones in the host Paleoproterozoic sequences. Basalts, quartzite sandstones, and carbonate deposits of the Jatulian suprahorizon; carbonaceous, mafic, and ultramafic sequences of the Ludicovian suprahorizon, as well as gabbrodolerites intruding them, were subjected to alteration. The ore mineralization of noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium and noble-metal–copper–uranium deposits and occurrences (in which the noble metals are predominantly Au, Pd) is represented by copper sulfides and selenides, lead, silver, gold, palladium; less frequently, platinum, native gold; more rarely, bismuth, bismuth tellurides; as well as uraninite, vanadium micas, molybdenite, REE minerals, hematite, and goethite, which are typomorphic minerals of these deposits and occurrences. Among hydrothermal selenides, clausthalite, naumannite, fischesserite, palladseite, padmaite, sudovikite, bogdanovichite, paraguanahuatite, eukairite, umangite, klockmanite, timannite, tyrrelite, and cadmoselite have been established, as well as selenium-bearing sulfides (Se-malyshevite, weibullite, selenogalena, Se-bearing bornite, chalcocite, and molybdenite). Native selenium and selenates were found in oxidation zones. Typomorphic assemblages of Au–Cu sulfide deposits and occurrences in the more eroded central part of the Karelian Craton are represented by chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, galena, molybdenite, silver sulfides, gold, electrum, Se-bearing chalcocite, and hematite. Selenides are less common in these ores—among them clausthalite, naumannite, bogdanovichite, and fischesserite have been identified.

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The study was carried out on the topic of research work no. 209 of IG KRC RAS, no. GR: АААА-А18-118020290084-7.

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Kuleshevich, L.V., Lavrov, O.B. Mineral–Geochemical Features of Paleoproterozoic Gold–Copper–Sulfide, Noble Metal-Copper–Uranium, and Noble-Metal–Copper–Uranium–Vanadium Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Karelia. Geol. Ore Deposits 64, 123–143 (2022).

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  • gold–copper–sulfide, noble-metal–copper–uranium, and noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium mineralization
  • typomorphic minerals, selenides
  • selenium
  • selenates
  • Paleoproterozoic structures
  • metasomatites
  • Karelia