Skip to main content

Mineral–Geochemical Features of Paleoproterozoic Gold–Copper–Sulfide, Noble Metal-Copper–Uranium, and Noble-Metal–Copper–Uranium–Vanadium Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Karelia

Abstract

Gold–copper–sulfide, noble-metal–copper–uranium and noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium mineralization in Paleoproterozoic structures of the Karelian Craton is associated with the evolution of the large regional Lapland–Onega rift structure in the Svecofennian. A characteristic feature of the deposits and ore occurrences that formed at the orogenic stage is the appearance of selenium minerals. On the territory of Karelia, ore objects of the separate Onega, Kumsinskaya, Pergubskaya, Severo-Vygozero, Lekhta and Elmozersko-Segozero structures were studied and materials on the ore mineralization of Paana-Kuolajarvi structure were generalized. The element concentrations in ores and near-ore metasomatites were determined by ICP-MS analysis, and the contents of individual elements was determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Ore minerals were studied by scanning electron microscopy. It has been established that the ores of the studied deposits and ore occurrences are represented by a geochemical assemblage of elements, including Cu, Au, Ag, Pb, Mo, Pd, Pt, Co, Ni, U, Se, Bi, Te, As, V, REE, Ba, and Fe ( in various proportions). Vein-disseminated ore mineralization is accompanied by low-temperature metasomatites: alkaline (albitites, eisites), ferromagnesian, mica or beresites, confined to deformation zones in the host Paleoproterozoic sequences. Basalts, quartzite sandstones, and carbonate deposits of the Jatulian suprahorizon; carbonaceous, mafic, and ultramafic sequences of the Ludicovian suprahorizon, as well as gabbrodolerites intruding them, were subjected to alteration. The ore mineralization of noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium and noble-metal–copper–uranium deposits and occurrences (in which the noble metals are predominantly Au, Pd) is represented by copper sulfides and selenides, lead, silver, gold, palladium; less frequently, platinum, native gold; more rarely, bismuth, bismuth tellurides; as well as uraninite, vanadium micas, molybdenite, REE minerals, hematite, and goethite, which are typomorphic minerals of these deposits and occurrences. Among hydrothermal selenides, clausthalite, naumannite, fischesserite, palladseite, padmaite, sudovikite, bogdanovichite, paraguanahuatite, eukairite, umangite, klockmanite, timannite, tyrrelite, and cadmoselite have been established, as well as selenium-bearing sulfides (Se-malyshevite, weibullite, selenogalena, Se-bearing bornite, chalcocite, and molybdenite). Native selenium and selenates were found in oxidation zones. Typomorphic assemblages of Au–Cu sulfide deposits and occurrences in the more eroded central part of the Karelian Craton are represented by chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, galena, molybdenite, silver sulfides, gold, electrum, Se-bearing chalcocite, and hematite. Selenides are less common in these ores—among them clausthalite, naumannite, bogdanovichite, and fischesserite have been identified.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.

REFERENCES

  1. Afanas’eva, E.N. and Mironov, Yu.B., Complex gold–uranium mineralization of the eastern Baltic Shield, Zoloto Fennoskandinavskogo shchita: Mater. Mezhd. Konf. KarNTs RAN (Gold of the Fennoscandian Shield. Proc. International Conference. KarNTs RAS), Petrozavodsk, 2013, pp. 9–12.

  2. Avdonin, V.V., Boitsov, V.E., Grigor’ev, V.M., et al., Mestorozhdeniya metallicheskikh poleznykh iskopaemykh (Metallic Deposits), Moscow: Akademicheskii proekt, Triksta, 2005.

  3. Barton, M.D. and Johnson, D.A., Evaporitic source model for igneous-related Fe oxide–(REE–Cu–Au–U) mineralization, Geology, 1996, vol. 24, pp. 157–164. www.geo.arizona.edu/~mdbarton/MDB_papers_pdf/Barton96_IOCG_GEOL.pdf.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bilibina, T.V., Mel’nikov, E.K., and Savitskii, A.V., New type of complex ore deposits in Southern Karelia, Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd., 1991, no. 6, pp. 3–14.

  5. Borozdin A.P., Polekhovskii Yu.S., Bushmin S.A., et al., Age of metasomatism and ore formation in the Srednyaya Padma vanadium–precious metals–uranium deposit (Karelia, Baltic Shield), Dokl. Earth Sci., 2014, vol. 454, no. 1, pp. 68–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bushmin, S.A., Belyatsky, B.V., Krymsky, R.Sh., et al., Isochron Re–Os age of gold from Mayskoe gold quartz vein deposit (Northern Karelia, Baltic Shield), Dokl. Earth Sci., 2013, vol. 448, no. 1, pp. 54–57. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1028334X13010030

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chernikov, A.A. Chistyakova, N.I., Uvarkina, O.M., et al., Malyshevite PdBiCuS3—a new mineral from the Srednyaya Padma deposit in South Karelia, New Mineral Data, 2006, vol. 41, pp. 14–17.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chernyavskii, A.V., Voloshin, A.V., and Voitekhovskii, Yu.L., Noble-metal and sulfide mineralization in low-sulfide epithermal occurrences of the Pana–Kuolajarvi structures, Tr. KarNTs RAS, 2012, no. 3, pp. 157–164.

  9. Eilu, P., FINGOLD—a public database on gold deposits in Finland, Geol. Surv. Finland. Report Invest., 1999.

  10. Eilu, P. and Niiranen, T., Iron Oxide–Copper–Gold Deposits in Finland, Espoo: GSF, 2002. http://en.gtk.fi/export/sites/en/informationservices/commodities/images/iocg_in_finland.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Eilu, P., Pankka, H., Keinanen, V., Kortelainen, V., Niiranen, T. and Pulkkinen, E., Characteristics of gold mineralisation in the greenstone belts of northern Finland, Geol. Surv. Finland, Spec. Paper, 2007, vol. 44, pp. 57–106.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Frietsch, R., Frietsch, R., Tuisku, P., and Martinsson, O., Early Proterozoic Cu–(Au) and Fe ore deposits associated with regional Na–Cl metasomatism in northern Fennoscandia, Ore Geol. Rev., 1997, vol. 12, pp. 1–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Glebovitskii, V.A., Bushmin, S.A., Bogomolov, E.S., et al., Rb–Sr age of metasomatism and ore formation in the low-temperature shear zones of the Fenno-Karelian Craton, Baltic Shield, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, vol. 445, no. 1, pp. 821–825.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Glebovitskii, V.A., Bushmin, S.A., Belyatsky, B.V., et al., Rb–Sr age of metasomatism and ore formation in the low-temperature shear zones of the Fenno-Karelian Craton, Baltic Shield, Petrology, 2014, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 184–204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Goltsin, N.A., Saltykova, A.K., Polekhovsky, Yu.S., et al., Zircons from high carbon Palaeoproterozoic sediments (shungites) of the Onega structure (Central Karelia, NW Russia), 4th International SHRIMP Workshop. Abstract, St. Petersburg: 2008, pp. 50–53.

  16. Hitzman, M.W., Oreskes, N., and Einaudi, M.T., Geological characteristics and tectonic setting of Proterozoic iron-oxide (Cu–U–Au–REE) deposits, Precambrian Res., 1992, vol. 58, pp. 241–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Johnson, J.P., and Cross, K.C., U-Pb geochronological constraints on genesis of the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag deposit, South Australia, Econ. Geol., 1995, vol. 90, pp. 1046–1063.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Juhani, O.V., Gold in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, Geol. Surv. Finland, Spec. Pap., 2007, vol. 44.

  19. Kalinin, A.A., Zoloto v metamorficheskikh kompleksakh severo-vostochnoi chasti Fennoskandinavskogo shchita (Gold in the Metamorphic Complexes of the Northeastern Fennoscandian Shield), Apatity, 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kalinin, A.A., Gold-bearing molybdenum–uranium mineralization of the Salla–Pana-Kuolajarvi zone, Trudy X Fersmanovskoi nauchnoi sessii (Proc. 10th Fersman Scientific Session), Apatity, 2013, pp. 142–147.

  21. Kalinin, A.A., Savchenko, E.A., and Selivanova, E.A., Rhenium- and selenium-bearing molybdenite of the Ozernoe occurrence in the Salla–Kuolajarvi zone, Northern Karelia, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2013, no. 6, pp. 105–115.

  22. Kalinin, A.A., Savchenko, E.A., and Selivanova, E.A., Se and Te mineralization in albitites and prospects of the metasomatites for Au, Salla–Kuolajarvi Belt, Northern Karelia, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2014, vol. 455, pp. 229–232.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kalinin, A.A., Kaulina, T.V., Lyalina, L.M., Elizarov D.V., and Serov P.A., Stages of formation of uranium mineralization of the Salla–Kuolajarvi zone (Northern Larelia): geological and isotope-geochronological data, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2015, no. 2, pp. 99–108.

  24. Kalinin, A.A., Karpov, S.M., Kalacheva, A.B., et al., New data on mineralogy of the gold–quartz deposit of the Maiskoe deposit (Northern Karelia), Trudy Fersm. Nauchnoi Sessii GI KNTs RAN (Proc. Fersm. Session GI KNTs RAS), Apatity, 2018, vol. 15, pp. 172–175. https://doi.org/10.31241/FNS.2018.15.042

  25. Kolyadina, N.I., Uranium mineralization in sodic alteration zones of the Lagernoe and Ozernoe occurrences (Nortehrn Karelia), Izv. Sibirskogo otdeleniya. Sektsii nauk o Zemle RAEN. Geol., Razved., Razrab. Mestorozhd. Polezn. Iskop., 2017, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 83–96.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Korkalo, T., Gold and copper deposits in Central Lapland, Northern Finland, with special reference to their exploration and exploitation, Acta Univ. Oulu, 2006, vol. 461.

  27. Koval’, A.V., Bogachev, V.A., and Petrov, S.V., Ore mineralization of the Ozernoe and Lagernoe gold occurrences of the Kuolajarvi structure (Northern Karelia), Vestn. Murmansk. Gos. Tekhn. Univ., 2019, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 23–35. https://doi.org/10.21443/1560-9278-2019-22-1-23-35

  28. Kuleshevich, L.V. and Golubev, A.I., Noble metals in alkaline metasomatites of the Srednyaya Padma, Karelia, Rudy Met., 2012, no. 1, pp. 17–25.

  29. Kuleshevich, L.V. and Lavrov, O.B., Voitsky mine–Au–Cu–S-quartz deposit in the Paleoproterozoic Northern Vygozero structure of Karelia, Geol. Polezn. Iskop. Karelii, 2010, vol. 13, pp. 116–130.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Kuleshevich, L.V. and Lavrov, O.B., Gold-bearing copper ores of the Voronov Bor site in the Paleoproterozoic deposits of Karelia, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2011, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 74–84.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Kuleshevich, L.V. and Lavrov, O.B., History of discovery and mineralogy of the Voitsky mine, Karelia, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2012, no. 5, pp. 59–67.

  32. Kuleshevich, L.V. and Lavrov, O.B., Au–Pd–Cu–Se–U-ore mineralization of the Svetloe occurrence, Central Karelia, Rudy Met., 2020, no. 1, pp. 69–86.

  33. Kuleshevich, L.V., Lavrov, O.B., and Golubev, A.I., Voronov Bor gold-bearing copper–sulfide deposit and prospects of copper–sulfide occurrences of Karelia, Geol. Polezn. Iskop. Karelii, 2009, vol. 9, pp. 26–47.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kuleshevich, L.V., Golubev, A.I., and Lavrov, O.B., Paleoproterozoic gold-bearing copper deposits and occurrences of the Karelian Craton, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 432, no. 3, pp. 677–681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kuleshevich, L.V., Lavrov, O.B., and Dmitrieva, A.V., Geological structure and Cu–Pb–Au–Pd–Se–U mineralization of the Kumsa structure, Geol. Polezn. Iskop. Karelii, 2011, vol. 14, pp. 127–145.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Kuleshevich, L.V., Filippov, M.M., Goltsin, N.A., et al., Metasomatites developed after shungite-bearing rocks of the Maksovo Deposit (Onega Basin, Karelia), Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2019, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0024490219020044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Lavrov, O.B. and Kuleshevich, L.V., The first finds of rhenium minerals in Karelia, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2010, vol. 432, no. 1, pp. 598–691.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lavrov, O.B. and Kuleshevich, L.V., Mineral associations of low-temperature veins and oxidation zones of the Kondoberezhskaya occurrence (Onega structure, Karelia), Trudy 17 Fersmanovskoi nauchnoi sessii GI KNTs RAN (Proc. 17th Fersman Scientific Session of GI KNTs RAN) Apatity, 2020, pp. 317–321. https://doi.org/10.31241/FNS.2020.17.060.

  39. Ledeneva, N.V. and Pakul’nis, G.V., Mineralogy and Formation Conditions of Uranium–Vanadium Deposits in the Onega Basin (Russia), Geol. Ore Deposits, 1997, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 219–228.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Mel’nikov, E.K. and Shumilin, M.V., On possible model of the formation of uranium–vanadium with noble-metal deposits in the Onega district (Karelia), Izv. Vyssh. Ucheb. Zaved. Geol. Razvedka, 1995, no. 6, pp. 31–37.

  41. Mel’nikov, E.K., Petrov, Yu.V., Ryabukhin, V.T., and Savitskii, A.V., Onega ore district with uranium–gold–PGE–vanadium deposits, Razved. Okhr. Nedr, 1992, no. 8, pp. 31–36.

  42. Metallogeniya Karelii (Metallogeny of Karelia), Rybakov, S.I. and Golubev, A.I., Eds., Petrozavodsk: KarNTS RAS, 1999.

  43. Miguta, A.K., Composition and mineral assemblages of uranium ores in the El’kon District, Aldan Shield (Russia), Geol. Ore Deposits, 1997, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 275–293.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Mineral’no-syr’evaya baza Respubliki Kareliya (Mineral–Raw Base of the Republic of Karelia), Mikhailov, V.P. and Aminov, V.N., Eds., Petrozavodsk: Kareliaya, 2005, vol. 1.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Molchanov, A.V., Shatov, V.V., Terekhov, A.V., et al., Elkon gold–uranium cluster (Southern Yakutia): geological structure, petrographic–geochemical features of hydrothermal–metasomatic rocks, and ore potential, Regional. Geol. Metallogen., 2012, no. 50, pp. 80–101.

  46. Niiranen, T., Excursion locality 2 hannukainen, Iron Oxide–Copper–Gold Excursion and Workshop to Northern Finland and Sweden, Eilu, P., Eds., Geol. Surv. Finland, 2004, vol. 31.5–4.6, pp. 42–57. Report M10.3/2004/1/10.

  47. Niiranen, T. Iron oxide–copper–gold deposits in Finland: case studies from the Peräpohja schist belt and the Central Lapland greenstone belt, Academic Dissertation, Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2005.

  48. Onezhskaya paleoproterozoiskaya struktura (geologiya, tektonika, glubinnoe stroenie i minerageniya) (Paleoproterozoic Onega Structure: Geology, Tectonics, Deep Structure, and Metallogeny), Glushanin, L.V., Sharov, N.V., and Shchiptsov, V.V., Eds., Petrozavodsk, 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Patison, N.L., Structural controls on gold mineralisation in the Central Lapland greenstone belt, Geol. Surv. Finland. Spec. Pap., 2007, vol. 44, pp. 107–124.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Patison, N.L., G. Salamis, and Kortelainen, V.J., The Suurikuusikko gold deposit: project development summary of northern Europe’s largest gold resource gold in the Central Lapland greenstone belt, Finland, Geol. Surv. Finland, Spec. Pap., 2007, vol. 44, pp. 125–134.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Polekhovskii, Yu.S. and Voloshin, A.V., New natural PGE systems in metasomatites of the South Karelia, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 1990, vol. 315, no. 3, pp. 700–703.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Polekhovskii, Yu.S., Voloshin, A.V., Tarasova, I.P., et al., A new type of palladium-bearing mineralization in metasomatites of Karelia, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Ser. Geol., 1991a, no. 7, pp. 86–95.

  53. Polekhovskii, Yu.S., Voloshin, A.V., Tarasova, I.P., et al., Padmaite PdBiSe—a new palladium and bismuth selenide from metasomatites of Southern Karelia, Zap. Vsesoyuz. Mineral. O-va, 1991b, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 85–88.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Polekhovskii, Yu.S., Tarasova, I.P., Nesterov, A.R., et al., Sudovikovite, PtSe2: a new platinum selenide from metasomatites of Southern Karelia, Dokl. Earth Sci., 1997. T. 354. no. 1. S. 486–489.

  55. Polekhovskii, Yu.S., Petrov, S.V., Kalinin, A.A., et al., New data on mineralogy of the Rompas gold–uranium occurrence, Finland, Trudy 16 Fersman. nauchnoi sessii GI KNTs RAN (Proc. 16th Fersman Scientific Session GI KNTs RAS), Apatity: 2019, pp. 482–486.

  56. Poritskii, M.S., Buiko, A.K., Kotov, N.V., and Poritskaya, L.G., Geological position and conditions of formation of gold-bearing metasomatites of the Maiskoe deposit (Northern Karelia), Vestn. St. Petersb. Univ., 1993, ser. 7, vol. 1, pp. 15–21.

  57. Reynolds, L.J., Geology of the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag–REE deposit, In Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper–Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, Porter, T.M., Eds., Adelaide: PGC, 2000, vol. 1, pp. 93–104.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Roberts, D.E. and Hudson, G.R.T., The Olympic Dam copper–uranium–gold deposit, Roxby Downs, South Australia, Econ. Geol., 1983, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 799–822.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Safonov, Yu.G., Volkov, A.V., Vol’fson, A.A., et al., The Maisk quartz gold deposit (Northern Karelia): geological, mineralogical, and geochemical studies and some genetic problems, Geol. Ore Deposits, 2003, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 375–394.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Solov’ev, S.G., Zhelezooksidno-zoloto-mednye i rodstvennye mestorozhdeniya (Iron Oxide–Gold–Copper and Related Deposits), Moscow: Nauchnyi mir, 2011.

  61. Turchenko, S.I. and Grokhovskii, B.M., Polygenetic nature of the Maiskoe gold deposit (Central Karelia): geological and isotope evidences, Regional. Geol., 2018, vol. 74, pp. 43–48.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Vanhanen, E., Geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Fe–Co–Au–(U) deposits in the Paleoproterozoic Kuusamo schist belt, northeastern Finland, Geol. Surv. Finland, Bull., 2001, vol. 399.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Vanhanen, E., Cook, N.D.J., Oliver, N.H.S., et al., The Rompas prospect, Peräpohja schist belt, Northern Finland, Mineral Deposits of Finland, 2015, pp. 467–484.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  64. Voitekhovskii, Yu.L., Chernyavskii, A.V., Basalaev, A.A., and Savchenko, E.A., Gold of the Kairaly occurrence, Zap. Ross. Mineral. O-va, 2010, vol. 139, no. 4, pp. 75–79.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Voitekhovskii, Yu.L., Chernyavskii, A.V., Basalaev, A.A., and Savchenko, E.A., Gold of the Kairaly area, Trudy Fersman. nauchnoi sessii GI KNTs RAN (Proc. Fersman Scientific Session GI KNTs RAS), Apatity, 2009, no. 6, pp. 105–108.

  66. Vol’fson, A.A., Rusinov, V.L., Krylova, T.L., et al., Metasomatic Alterations in Precambrian Metabasites of the Salla–Kuolajarvi Graben near the Maiskoe Gold Field, Northern Karelia, Petrology, 2005, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 161–186.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Wyche, N.L., eilu, P., Valimaa, J., The Suurikuusikko gold deposit (Kittila mine), northern Finland, Mineral Deposits of Finland, 2015, pp. 411–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-410438-9.00016-9

Download references

Funding

The study was carried out on the topic of research work no. 209 of IG KRC RAS, no. GR: АААА-А18-118020290084-7.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. B. Lavrov.

Ethics declarations

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kuleshevich, L.V., Lavrov, O.B. Mineral–Geochemical Features of Paleoproterozoic Gold–Copper–Sulfide, Noble Metal-Copper–Uranium, and Noble-Metal–Copper–Uranium–Vanadium Deposits and Ore Occurrences of Karelia. Geol. Ore Deposits 64, 123–143 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1075701522030047

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1075701522030047

Keywords:

  • gold–copper–sulfide, noble-metal–copper–uranium, and noble-metal–copper–uranium–vanadium mineralization
  • typomorphic minerals, selenides
  • selenium
  • selenates
  • Paleoproterozoic structures
  • metasomatites
  • Karelia