• Supplement: Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal-Zhurnal Rossiiskogo Khimicheskogo Obshchestva im. D.I. Mendeleeva (Russian Chemistry Journal)
  • Published:

Chemical experiment in Russian schools


Many arguments in favor of chemical experiment, both old and new ones, were put forward. It was demonstrated that chemical experiment is valuable by itself and instrumental in teaching and forms metadomain skills. The idea that chemical experiment should form concepts rather than illustrate them was substantiated.

Opportunities for chemical experiments in modern Russian schools were considered. Legislation dealing with chemical experiment was criticized for numerous collisions, and possible ways to avoid these collisions were suggested. It was noted that staffing problem could be reduced reasonably by encouraging teachers. For methodological support, which is also crucial, some points of development were indicated (digital laboratories, inquiry learning, and shifting the role of experiment from concept illustration to concept formation). It was stated that the supply of chemical experiment is insufficient but can be optimized by some measures that should be taken by educational authorities.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Fadeev, G.N., Dvulichanskaya, N.N., Matakova, S.A., and Volkov, A.A., in Sovremennye tendentsii razvitiya estestvennonauchnogo obrazovaniya: fundamental’noe universitetskoe obrazovanie (Current Trends in Natural-Sciences Education: Fundamental University Education), Lunin, V.V., Ed., Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2010; http://www.chem.msu.su/rus/books/2010/lunin/fadeev.pdf .

  2. 2.

    Zhilin, D.M., Yunyi khimik. 130 opytov s veshchestvami (Young Chemist: 130 Experiments with Substances), Moscow: Mosk. Gos. Univ., 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bogdanova, G.A., private communication.

  4. 4.

    Dorofeev, M.V. and Stuneeva, Yu.B., Khim. Shkole, 2010, no. 8, pp. 31–39.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Polosin, V.S., Khim. Shkole, 1992, nos. 3–4, pp. 18–19.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Polosin, V.S., Khim. Shkole, 1980, no. 6, pp. 48–51.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Zhilin, D.M., Oshibki v provedenii eksperimentov i interpretatsii ikh rezul’tatov: videolektsiya (Errors in Conducting Experiments and Interpreting Their Results: Video Lecture), 2010; http://metodist.lbz.ru/video/jilin/2-1.flv , http://metodist.lbz.ru/video/jilin/2-2.flv , http://metodist.lbz.ru/video/jilin/2-3.flv .

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Tsvetkov, L.A., Ed., Obshchaya metodika obucheniya khimii (General Methodology of Chemistry Teaching), Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Séré, M.G., Fernandez-Gonzalez, M., Gallegos, J.A, Gonzalez-Garcia, F., De Manuel, E., Perales, F.J., and Leach, J., Images of Science Linked to Labwork: A Survey of Secondary School and University Students, Res. Sci. Educ., 2001, vol. 31, pp. 499–523.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Merrienboer, J.J.G., Kirschner, P.A., and Kester, L., Educ. Psychol., 2003, vol. 38(1), pp. 5–3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kiryushkin, D.M. and Polosin, V.S., Metodika obucheniya khimii (Chemistry Teaching Methodology), Moscow: Prosveshchenie, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Tchaikovsky, Yu.V., Elementy evolyutsionnoi diatropiki (Elements of Evolution Diatropics), Moscow: Nauka, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Dahlin, B. Sci. Educ., 2001, vol. 10, pp. 453–475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Halbych, J., Čtrnáctová, H., Novotný, V., in Problemy obucheniya khimii v shkolakh sotsialisticheskikh stran (Problems of Teaching Chemistry in Socialist Countries’ Schools), Sofia: Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Obshch. Obraz., 1987, part 2, pp. 138–147.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Osorina, M.V., Sekretnyi mir detei v prostranstve mira vzroslykh (The Secret World of Children in the Space of the Aadult World), St. Petersburg: Piter, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., and Clark, R. E., Educ. Psychol., 2006, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 75–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Stavridou, H. and Solomonidou, C., Int. J. Sci. Educ., 1998, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 205–221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Erlis, B.A.M. and Subramaniam, R., IASCE Conf., 2004, Singapore; http://www.iasce.net/Conference-2004/23June/Erlis/iasce2004%20chem%20demos.pdf .

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    McKee, E., Williamson, V.M., and Ruebush, L.E., J. Sci. Educ. Technol., 2007, vol. 16, pp. 395–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Baddock, M. and Bucat, R., Int. J. Sci. Educ., 2008, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1115–1128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Hamza, K. and Wickman, P.-O., Sci. Educ., 2008, vol. 92, pp. 141–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Akhmetov, M.A., Isaeva, O.N., and Pil’nikova, N.N., Khim. Shkole, 2010, no. 4, pp. 28–31.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Zhilin, D.M., Khimiya-8: Uchebnik dlya srednikh obshcheobrazovatel’nykh shkol (A Textbook for Secondary General Education Schools), Moscow: BINOM: Lab. Znanii, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Zhilin, D.M., Khimiya: metodicheskoe posobie dlya 8–9 klassov (Chemistry: A Study Guide for 8–9 Graders), Moscow: BINOM: Lab. Znanii., 2010.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. M. Zhilin.

Additional information

Original Russian Text © D.M. Zhilin, 2011, published in Rossiiskii Khimicheskii Zhurnal, 2011, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 48–56.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zhilin, D.M. Chemical experiment in Russian schools. Russ J Gen Chem 83, 819–829 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1070363213040361

Download citation


  • General Chemistry
  • Chemical Agent
  • Chemical Experiment
  • Cognitive Conflict
  • Personal Significance