Skip to main content

The role of mercury in the processes of vital activity of the human and mammalian organisms

Abstract

Mercury belongs to one of the most common heavy metals that have high biological activity in relation to human and animal cells. However, the physiological role of mercury in the metabolism of eukaryotic cells is still unclear. The given review provides current information on certain properties of mercury, the mechanisms of penetration of Hg (II) inside cells, its genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, as well as the role of mercury in the induction of autoimmune processes involving production of autoantibodies to the nucleolar protein fibrillarin.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Swain, E.B., Jakus, P.M., Rice, G., Lupi, F., Maxson, P.A., Pacyna, J.M. and Penn, A., Spiegel, S.J. and Veiga, M.M., Ambio: J. Human Environ., 2007, vol. 36, no. 1, p. 45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. [ATSDR] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological profile for mercury, Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control, 1999.

  3. Ostroumov, S.A., Ecol. Studies, Hazards, Solutions, 2006, no. 11, p. 106.

  4. Ostroumov, S.A., Hushvahtova, S.D., Danilova, V.N., and Ermakov, V.V., Ekol. Okruzhayucshej Sredy i Bezopasnost’ Zhiznedeyatel’nosti, 2007, no. 5, p. 79.

  5. Ostroumov, S.A., Hushvahtova, S.D., Danilova, V.N., and Ermakov, V.V., in Problemy Ekologii i Gidrobiologii (Problems of Ecology and Hydrobiology), 2008, M.: MAKS Press, pp. 31–34.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ostroumov, S.A., Hushvahtova, S.D., Danilova, V.N., and Ermakov, V.V., Ekol. Khim., 2008, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 84.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Ostroumov, S.A., Hushvahtova, S.D., Danilova, V.N., and Ermakov, V.V., Toksikologicheskij Vestnik, 2009, no. 1, p. 45.

  8. Ball, L.K., Ball, R., Pratt, R.D., Pediatrics, 2001, vol. 107, no. 5b, p. 1147.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Clarkson, T.W., Environ. Health Perspect., 2001, no. 110, p. 11.

  10. Siegler, R.W., Nierenberg, D.W. and Hickey, W.F., Human Pathol., 1999, vol. 30, no. 6, p. 720.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Clarkson, T.W., Vyas, J.B., and Ballatori, N., Amer. J. Ind. Med., 2007, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 757.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Trahtenberg, I.M. and Korshun, M.N., Rtut’ i ee soedineniya v okruzhayucshej srede (Mercury and its compounds in the environment). Kiev: High School, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Vavilova, N.M., Gomeopaticheskaya farmakodinam i ka (Homeopathic Pharmacodynamics), Rostov on/D.: Gefest, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Sager, P.R., Aschner, M. and Rodier, P.M., Brain Res., 1984, vol. 314, no. 1, p. 1.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Frustaci, A., Magnavita, N., Chimenti, C., Caldarulo, M., Sabbioni, E., Pietra, R., Cellini, C., Possati, G.F. and Maseri, A., J. Amer. Coll. Cardiol., 1999, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 1578.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. [WHO] World Health Organization, Methylmercury, Intern. Program on Chem. Safety, 1990, pp. 1–144.

  17. Venchikov, A.M., Printsipy lechebnogo primeneniya mikroelementov v kachestve biotikov (Principles of Medical Application of Trace Elements as Biotics), Ashhabad: Ylym, 1982.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Torchinskij, Ju.M., Sul’ fgidril’nye i disul’fi dnye gruppy belkov (Sulphydryl and disulfi de groups of proteins), M.: Nauka, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Valko, M., Morris, H. and Cronin, M.T.D., Current Medic. Chem., no. 12, p. 1161.

  20. Kutsenko, S.A., Osnovy toksikologii (Principles of Toxicology), SPb: Folio, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Havarinasab, S. and Hultman, P., Autoimmun Rev., 2005, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 270.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. InSug, O., Datar, S., Koch, C.J., Shapiro, I.M. and Shenker, B.J., Toxicology, 1997, vol. 124, no. 3, p. 211.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Havarinasab, S., Björn, E., Ekstrand, J. and Hultman, P., Toxicology, 2007, vol. 229, no. 1–2, p. 23.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hemdan, N.Y., Lehmann, I., Wichmann, G., Lehmann, J., Emmrich, F. and Sack, U., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2007, vol. 148, no. 2, p. 325.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. de Vos, G., Abotaga, S., Liao, Z., Jerschow, E. and Rosenstreich, D., Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 2007, vol. 29, no. 3–4, p. 537.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Messer, R.L., Lockwood, P.E., Tseng, W.Y., Edwards, K., Shaw, M., Caughman, G.B., Lewis, J.B. and Wataha, J.C., J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B, Appl. Biomater., 2005, no. 75, p. 257.

  27. Glinka, N.L., Obshchaya Khimiya (General Chemistry), L.: Khimiya, 1985, 702.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Bucio, L., García, C., Souza, V., Hernández, E., González, C., Betancourt, M. and Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M.C., Mutat. Res., 1999, no. 423, p. 65.

  29. Königsberg, M., López-Díazguerrero, N.E., Bucio, L. and Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M.C., J. Appl. Toxicol., 2001, no. 21, p. 323.

  30. Chen, C., Qu, L., Zhao, J., Liu, S., Deng, G., Li, B., Zhang, P. and Chai, Z., Sci. Total Environ., 2006, no. 366, p. 627.

  31. Carranza-Rosales, P., Said-Fernández, S., Sepúlveda-Saavedra, J., Cruz-Vega, D.E., and Gandolfi, A.J., Toxicology, 2005, vol. 210, no. 2–3, p. 111.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kaur, P., Aschner, M. and Syversen, T., Neurotoxicology, 2006, no. 27, p. 492.

  33. Verlecar, X.N., Jena, K.B. and Chainy, G.B., Chem. Biol. Interact., 2007, no. 167, p. 219.

  34. Shenker, B.J., Guo, T.L., Insug, O. and Shapiro, I.M., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 1999, no. 157, p. 23.

  35. Shenker, B.J., Pankoski, L., Zekavat, A. and Shapiro, I.M., Antioxid. Redox Signal., 2002, no. 4, p. 379.

  36. Saeko, A., Masuo, K., Masaki, K., Sayaka, S., Minoru, H., and Masao, S., Toxicology, 2003, no. 184, p. 1.

  37. Schurz, F., Sabater-Vilar, M. and Fink-Gremmels, J., Mutagenesis, 2000, no. 15, p. 525.

  38. Ueda, S., Nakamura, H., Masutani, H., Sasada, T., Yonehara, S., Takabayashi, A., Yamaoka, Y., and Yodoi, J., J. Immunol., 1998, no. 161, p. 6689.

  39. Hultberg, B., Andersson, A., and Isaksson, A., Toxicology, 1998, 126 no. 3, p. 203.

  40. Vas, J. and Monestier, M., Immunology of Mercury, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 2008, no. 1143, p. 240.

  41. Zhang, J., Bárdos, T., Mikecz, K., Finnegan, A., and Glant, T.T., J. Immunol., 2001, vol. 166, no. 8, p. 4981.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Ziemba, S.E., McCabe, M.J. Jr., and Rosenspire, A.J., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2005, vol. 206, no. 3, p. 334.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Pollard, K.M. and Landberg, G.P., Intern. Immunopharmacol., 2001a, vol. 1, no. 3, p. 581.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Pollard, K.M., Pearson, D.L., Bluthner, M., and Tan, E.M., J. Immunol., 2001, vol. 165, no. 4, p. 2263.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Ballatori, N., Environ. Health Perspect., 2002, no. 110, p. 689.

  46. Zalups, R.K., and Ahmad, S., J. Amer. Soc. Nephrology, 2004, no. 15, p. 2023.

  47. Lawrence, H.L., Hueni, S.E., Putt, D.A., and Zalups, R.K., Toxicol. Sci., 2005, no. 88, p. 630.

  48. Bridges, C.C., Bauch, C., Verrey, F., and Zalups, R.K., J. Amer. Soc. Nephrology, 2004, no. 15, p. 663.

  49. Galaktionova, V.G., Immunologiya (Immunology), M.: Akademiya, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Jacobson, D.L., Gange, S.J., Rose, N.R., and Graham, N.M., Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1997, vol. 84, no. 3, p. 223.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Helmick, C.G., Felson, D.T., Lawrence, R.C., Gabriel, S., Hirsch, R., Kwoh, C.K., Liang, M.H., Kremers, H.M., Mayes, M.D., Merkel, P.A., Pillemer, S.R., Reveille, J.D., and Stone, J.H., Arthritis Rheum., 2008, vol. 58, no. 1, p. 15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Bigazzi, P.E., Mercury. Immunotoxicology of Environmental and Occupational Metals, Eds. Zelikoff, J. and Thomas, P., London: Taylor & Francis, 1998, p. 131.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Rowley, B. and Monestier, M., Mol. Immunol., 2005, vol. 42, no. 7, p. 833.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Pollard, K.M. and Hultman, P., Arthritis Rheum., 2007, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1721–1722.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. da Costa, G.M., dos Anjos, L.M., Souza, G.S., Gomes, B.D., Saito, C.A., Pinheiro, Mda C., Ventura, D.F., da Silva, Filho M., and Silveira, L.C., Environ Res., 2008, vol. 107, no. 1, p. 98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Guzzi, G., Fogazzi, G.B., Cantù, M., Minoia, C., Ronchi, A., Pigatto, P.D., and Severi, G., J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol., 2008, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 147.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Abedi-Valugerdi, M., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2009, vol. 155, no. 1, p. 117.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Pollard, K.M., Lee, D.K., Casiano, C.A., Bluthner, M., Johnston, M.M., and Tan, E.M., J. Immunol., 1997, vol. 158, no. 7, p. 3521.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. Bigazzi, P.E., Environ. Health Perspect., 1999, vol. 107, no. 5, p. 753.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Havarinasab, S., Pollard, K.M., and Hultman, P., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2009, vol. 155, no. 3, p. 567.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Pedersen, L.M. and Permin, H., Lancet, 1988, vol. 1, no. 8597, p. 1267.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Arnett, F.C., Fritzler, M.J., Ahn, C., and Holian, A., J. Rheumatol., 2000, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 405.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Silbergeld, E.K., Silva, I.A., and Nyland, J.F., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2005, vol. 207,(2 suppl.), p. 282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Takeuchi, K., Turley, S.J., Tan, E.M., and Pollard, K.M., J. Immunol., 1995, vol. 154, no. 2, p. 961.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Hultman, P. and Hansson-Georgiadis, H., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 1999, vol. 154, no. 3, p. 203.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Hansson, M., and Abedi-Valugerdi, M., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2003, vol. 131, no. 3, p. 405.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kono, D.H., Park, M.S., Szydlik, A., Haraldsson, K.M., Kuan, J.D., Pearson, D.L., Hultman, P., and Pollard, K.M., J. Immunol., 2001, vol. 167, no. 4, p. 2396.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Reichow, S.L., Hamma, T., Ferré-D’Amaré, A.R., and Varani, G., Nucleic Acids Res., 2007, vol. 35, no. 5, p. 1452.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Muhar’yamova, K.Sh., Dudnik, O.A., Speranskij, A.I. and Zatsepina, O.V., Biologicheskie membrany, 1998, no. 15, p. 657.

  70. Levitskij, S.A., Muhar’yamova, K.Sh., Vejko, V.P., and Zatsepina, O.V., Molekulyarnaya biologiya, 1998, no. 38, p. 1.

  71. Van Eenennaam, H., Vogelzangs, J.H., Bisschops, L., Te Boome, L.C., Seeling, H.P., Renz, M., De Rooij, D.J., Brouwer, R., Pluk, H., Pruijn, G.J., Van Venrooij, W.J., and Van Den Hoogen, F.H., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2002, vol. 130, no. 3, p. 532.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Yang, J.M., Hildebrandt, B., Ludershmidt, C., and Pollard, K.M., Arthritis Rheum., 2003, vol. 48, no. 1, p. 210.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Ho, K.T. and Reveille, J.D., Arthritis Res. Ther., 2003, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 80.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Rhodes, B. and Vyse, T.J., Autoimmunity, 2007, vol. 40, no. 8, p. 550.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Tormey, V.J., Bunn, C.C., Denton, C.P., and Black, C.M., Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 40, no. 10, p. 1157.

  76. Chen, M., Rockel, T., Steinweger, G., Hemmerich, P., Risch, J., and von Mikecz, A., Moll. Biol. Cell., 2002, vol. 13, no. 10, p. 3576.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Chen, M., Hemmerich, P., and von Mikecz, A., Immunobiol., 2002, vol. 206, no. 5, p. 474.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Chen, M. and von Mikecz, A., Autoimmun. Rev., 2005, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 117.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Chen, M. and von Mikecz, A., Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 2005, no. 1051, p. 382.

  80. Rockel, T.D., Stuhlmann, D., and von Mikecz, A., J. Cell Sci., 2005, no. 118, p. 5231.

  81. Muhar’yamova, K.Sh. and Zatsepina, O.V., Tsitologiya, 2001, no. 43, p. 792.

  82. Abedi-Valugerdi, M. and Moller, G. Intern. Immunol., 2000, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 1425.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Stiller-Winkler, R., Radaszkiewicz, T., and Gleichmann, E., Intern. J. Immunopharmacol., 1998, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 475.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Johansson, U., Hansson-Georgiadis, H. and Hultman, P., Intern. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 1998, vol. 116, no. 4, p. 295.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Hultman, P., Eneström, S., Pollard, K.M., and Tan, E.M., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 1989, vol. 78, no. 3, p. 470.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Robinson, C. J., White, H.J., and Rose, N.R., Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1997, vol. 83, no. 2, p. 127.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Bagenstose, L.M., Salgame, P., and Monestier, M., Immunol. Res., 1999, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 67.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Ohsawa, M., Cancer Caus. Control., 1997, vol. 8 no. 3, p. 514.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Arnett, F.C., Reveille, J.D., Goldstein, R., Pollard, K.M., Leaird, K., Smith, E.A., Leroy, E.C., and Fritzler, M.J., Arthritis Rheum., 1996, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 1151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Abedi-Valugerdi, M., Hansson, M., and Möller, G., Scand. J. Immunol., 2001, vol. 54, no. 1–2, p. 190.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Pollard, K.M., Pearson, D.L., Hultman, P., Hildebrandt, B., and Kono, D.H., Environ. Health Perspect., 1999, vol. 107,suppl. 5, p. 729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Pollard, K.M., Pearson, D.L., Hultman, P., Deane, T.N., Lindh, U., and Kono, D.H., Environ. Health Perspect., 2001, vol. 109, no. 1, p. 27.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Robinson, C.J., Abraham, A.A., and Balazs, T., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 1984, 5 vol. 8, no. 2, p. 300.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Saegusa, J., Yamamoto, S., Iwai, H., and Ueda, K., Ind. Health, 1990, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 21.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Pietsch, P., Vohr, H.W., Degitz, K., and Gleichmann, E., Intern. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol., 1989, vol. 90, no. 1, p. 47.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Goldman, M., Druet, P., and Gleichmann, E., Immunol. Today, 1991, vol. 12, no. 7, p. 223.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Hultman, P., Taylor, A., Yang, J.M., and Pollard, K.M., J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A., 2006, vol. 69, no. 6, p. 505.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Markowitz, G.S. and D’Agati, V.D., Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens., 2009, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 220.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Hultman, P. and Eneström, S., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 1987, vol. 67, no. 2, p. 283.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. Hultman, P., Bell, L.J., Eneström, S., and Pollard, K.M., Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1993, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Eneström, S. and Hultman, P., Experientia, 1984, vol. 40, no. 11, p. 1234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Hultman, P. and Eneström, S., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 1992, vol. 113, no. 2, p. 199.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Johansson, U., Hansson-Georgiadis, H., and Hultman, P., Intern. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 1997, vol. 113, no. 4, p. 432.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Leffel, E.K., Wolf, C., Poklis, A., and White, K.L.Jr., Toxicology, 2003, vol. 188, no. 2–3, p. 233.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Tabata, M., Kumar Sarker, A. and Nyarko, E., J. Inorg. Biochem., 2003, vol. 94, no. 1–2, p,. 50.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Krasil’cshikova, M.S. and Zatsepina, O.V., Nauchnopraktich. revmatologiya, 2007, no. 3, p,. 54.

  107. Roman-Franco, A.A., Turiello, M., Albini, B., Ossi, E., Milgrom, F., and Andres, G.A., Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 1978, vol. 9 no. 4, p. 464.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Kosuda, L.L., Hannigan, M.O., Bigazzi, P.E., Leif, J.H., and Greiner, D.L., Autoimmunity, 1996, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 77.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Kosuda, L.L., Whalen, B., Greiner, D.L., and Bigazzi, P.E., Toxicology, 1998, vol. 125, no. 2–3, p. 215.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Bagenstose, L.M., Class, R., Salgame, P., and Monestier, M., Clin. Exp. Immunol., 2002, vol. 127, no. 1, p. 12.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Kubicka-Muranyi, M., Kremer, J., Lubben, B., Albers, R., Bloksma, N., Luhrmann, R., and Gleichmann, E., Intern. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 1996, vol. 109, no. 1, p. 11.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Pollard, K.M. and Hultmanm P., Met. Ions Biol. Syst., 1997, no. 34, p. 421.

  113. Lorenz, H.-M., Herrmann, M., Winkler, T., Gaipl, U., and Kalden, J.R., Apoptosis, 2000, no. 5, p. 443.

  114. Hildeman, D., Jorgensen, T., Kappler, J., and Marrack, P., Curr. Opin. Immunol., 2007, vol. 19, no. 5, p. 516.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Tanaka, M. and Miyake, Y., Curr. Med. Chem., 2007, vol. 14, no. 27, p. 2892.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Wallet, M.A., Sen, P., Flores, R.R., Wang, Y., Yi, Z., Huang, Y., Mathews, C.E., Earp, H.S., Matsushima, G., Wang, B., and Tisch, R., J. Exp. Med., 2008, vol. 205, no. 1, p. 219.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Kubicka-Muranyi, M., Griem, P., Lübben, B., Rottmann, N., Lührmann, R., and Gleichmann, E., Intern. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 1995, vol. 108, no. 1, p. 1.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Original Russian Text © V.V. Barygina, A.S. Aref’eva, O.V. Zatsepina, 2009, published in Ekologicheskaya Khimiya, 2009, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 189–201.

Victoria Valerievna Barygina, PhD student, Department of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Scientific areas of focus: cell biology, confocal microscopy, mobile properties of nucleolar proteins in normal and stress conditions.

Alla Sergeevna Aref’eva, junior research scientist in Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. Scientific areas of focus: cell biology, immunology, autoimmune diseases and processes, toxicology, ecology.

Olga Vladimirovna Zatsepina, Head of laboratory, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences. Scientific areas of focus: structure and functions of nucleolar proteins in normal and pathologic conditions; nucleolus as a sensor of stress exposure in human cells.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Barygina, V.V., Aref’eva, A.S. & Zatsepina, O.V. The role of mercury in the processes of vital activity of the human and mammalian organisms. Russ J Gen Chem 80, 2694–2703 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1070363210130037

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1070363210130037

Keywords

  • Mercury
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • Mercuric Chloride
  • Autoimmune Process
  • Inorganic Mercury