Table 1.   Model parameters values assumed in numerical simulations

Parameters and notations Parameter values
experiment 1 experiment 2 experiment 3
Lava density, $${{\rho }_{l}}$$ 2350 kg m–3
Lava viscosity, $${{\eta }_{l}}$$ 5.6 × 109 Pa s 5.6 × 109 Pa s 5.6 × 109 Pa s
Air density, $${{\rho }_{a}}$$ 1 kg m–3
Air viscosity, $${{\eta }_{a}}$$ 10–4 Pa s
Gravitational acceleration, g (0, 0, –9.81) m s–1 (–0.1, 0.2, –9.81) m s–1 (0, 0, –9.81) m s–1
Time scale, $$t^* = {{{{\eta }_{l}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{{\eta }_{l}}} {({{\rho }_{l}}gh)}}} \right. \kern-0em} {({{\rho }_{l}}gh)}}$$ 243 s 243 s 2430 s
Length scale, h 1000 m
Velocity scale, $${h \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {h {t{\text{*}}}}} \right. \kern-0em} {t{\text{*}}}}$$ 4.115 m s–1 4.115 m s–1 0.4115 m s–1
Width of the model domain, l1 32 136 m
Length of the model domain, l2 36 939 m
Height of the model domain, l3 400 m
Grid $$174 \times 200 \times 70$$ hexahedra with $${{h}_{1}} = 183.747$$ m, $${{h}_{2}} = 183.767$$ m, $${{h}_{3}} = 5.71$$ m
Lava extrusion rate $${{{\mathbf{u}}}_{0}} = (0,0,2.65774 \times {{10}^{{ - 3}}}{\text{)}}$$ m s–1
Model fissure shape Ellipse with semi-major axis of 2000 m, semi-minor axis 200 m, area 1.31691 × 106 m2