Microwave-assisted extraction of hypericin and pseudohypericin from Hypericum perforatum
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The influence of the main parameters on extraction of naphthodianthrone pigments (hypericin and pseudohypericin) from raw phytomass Hypericum perforatum using microwave activation was studied. The maximal pigment extraction was found to be achieved when using 55% ethanol or isopropanol as extractants at a water duty of 40 (power density of microwave irradiation was 0.0205 W/cm3 at a frequency 2450 MHz for 60 s). The microwave-assisted extraction of hypericin and pseudohypericin from H. perforatum was experimentally proved to be a particular example of the mass transfer intensification in a capillary porous body–liquid system. Microwave activation is found to implement extraction by ten times, reducing the time necessary to fully extract the pigments from H. perforatum compared to classical extraction.
KeywordsHypericum perforatum hypericin pseudohypericin microwave assisted extraction water duty extractant composition spectrophotometry
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