To better understand the habitat requirements of sika deer in the Taohongling National Nature Reserve, transect lines were set out to collect data on bed sites used by sika deer during the autumn. The results showed that sika deer displayed a preference for bed sites with a moderate height of grass fallow and brush fallow, lower shrub density, higher herb density, lower canopy coverage, and higher undergrowth coverage. The bed sites were also characterized as being located on sunny slopes, gentle slopes, and upper slopes, with high elevation. In addition, most bed sites were located far away from human disturbance (more than 1000 m). A logistic regression analysis model indicated that undergrowth coverage, slope location, canopy coverage, and height of undergrowth were important factors that contributed to the difference between used and non-used plots. The habitat–animal relationship is one of the most important types of information, which could provide important references for the conservation and management of sika deer and their habitats in the Taohongling reserve.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Rosenzweig, M.L., A theory of habitat selection, Ecology, 1981, vol. 62, pp. 327–335.
Mysterud, A., Bed-site selection by adult roe deer Capreolus caprelous in southern Norway during summer, Wildl. Biol., 1996, vol. 2, pp. 101–106.
Teng, L.W., Liu. Z.S., Song. Y.L., and Zeng. Z.G., Forage and bed sites characteristics of India muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) in Hainan Island, China, Ecol. Res., 2004, vol. 19, pp. 675–681.
Sakuragi, M., Igota, H., Uno, H., Kaji, K., Kaneko, M., Akamatsu, R., and Maekawa, K., Seasonal habitat selection of an expanding sika deer Cervus nipppon population in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, Wildl. Biol., 2003, vol. 9, pp. 141–153.
Coulombe, M.L., Huot, J., Massé, A., and Côté, S.D., Influence of forage biomass and cover on deer space use at a fine scale: A controlled-density experiment, Ecoscience, 2011, vol. 18, pp. 262–272.
Deperno, C.S., Jenks, J.A., and Griffin, S.L., Multidimensional cover characteristics: Is variation in habitat selection related to white-tailed deer sexual segregation, J. Mammal., 2003, vol. 84, pp. 1316–1329.
Brodie, J.F. and Brockelman, W.Y., Bed site selection of red muntjac (Muniacus muntijak) and sambar (Rusa unicolor) in a tropical seasonal forest, Ecol. Res., 2009, vol. 24, pp. 1251–1256.
Manning, J.A. and Garton, E.O., A piecewise linear modeling approach for testing competing theories of habitat selection: an example with mule deer in northern winter ranges, Oecologia, 2013, vol. 173, pp. 725–735.
Larkin, J.L., Cox, J.J., Wichrowski, M.W., Dzialak, M.R., and Maehr, D.S., Influences of release-site fidelity of translocated elk, Restor. Ecol., 2004, vol. 12, pp. 97–105.
Linnell, J.D.C., Nilsen, E.B., and Andersen, R., Selection of bed-sites by roe deer Capreolus Capreolus fawns in an agricultural landscape, Acta Theriol., 2004, vol. 49, pp.103–111.
Schneider, T.C., Kowalcyk, R., and Köhler, M., Resting site selection by large herbivores: The case of European bison (Bison bonasus) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Mammal. Biol., 2003, vol. 78, pp. 438–445.
Huegel, C.N., Dahlgern, R.B., and Gladfelter, H.L., Bed site selection by white-tailed deer fawns in Iowa, J. Mammal., 1986, vol. 50, pp. 474–480.
Ockenfels, R.A. and Brooks, D.E., Summer diurnal bed site of Coues White-tailed deer, J. Wildlife Manage., 1994, vol. 58, pp. 70–75.
Li, Y., Yu, Y.Q., Shi. J., and Shi, L., Foraging and bed site selection of Tianshan argli (Ovis ammon karelini) in Central Tianshan Mountains in Summer, Acta Ecol. Sin., 2013, vol. 33, pp. 7644–7650.
Whitehead, G.K., The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer, London: Swan Hill Press, 1993.
Harris, R.B., Cervus nippon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. www.Incnredlist.org. Downloaded January 29, 2016.
Goodman, S.J., Tamate, H.B., Wilson, R., Nagata, J., Tatsuzawa, S., Swanson, G.M., Pemberton, J.M., and McMullough, D.R., Bottlenecks, drift and differentiation: The population structure and demographic history of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Japanese archipelago, Mol. Ecol., 2011, vol. 10, pp. 1357–1370.
Li, Y.C., and Koganezawa, M., A density estimate of sika deer using distance sampling techniques in forested habitat, Acta Zool. Sin., 2004, vol. 50, pp. 27–31.
Yamamura, K., Matsuda, H., Yokomizo, H., Kaji, K., Uno, H., Tamada, K., Kurumada, T., Saitoh, T., and Hirakawa, H., Harvest-based Bayesian estimation of sika deer populations using state-space models, Popul. Ecol., 2008, vol. 50, pp. 131–144.
Yao, B.J., Zhao, Y., Zhang, M., and Li, J., Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the bone marrow of Chinese Sika deer, Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012, vol. 39, pp. 2981–2990.
Agetsuma, N., Agetsuma-Yanagihara, Y., and Takafumi, H., Food habits of Japanese deer in an evergreen forest: Litter-feeding deer, Mamm. Biol.-Z. Säugetierkd., 2011, vol. 76, pp. 201–207.
Li, J., Li, Y.K., Miao, L.J., Xie, G.Y., and Yuan, F.K., Habitat assessment of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Taohongling National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province, China, Acta Ecol. Sin., 2014, vol. 34, pp.1274–1283.
Borkowski, J., and Furubayashi, Home range size and habitat use in radio-collared female sika deer at high altitudes in the Tanzawa Mountains, Japan, Ann. Zool. Fenn., 1998, vol. 35, pp. 181–186.
Li, Y.C., Homma, K., Ohnaka, K., and Koganezawa, M., Summer home range size and inner utilization of forest sika deer Cervus nippon in Nikko, Japan, Acta Zool. Sin., 2006, vol. 52, pp. 235–241.
Ping, X.G., Li, C.W., Jiang, Z.G., Liu, W.H., and Zhu, H.B., Sexual difference in seasonal patterns of salt lick use by south China sika deer (Cervus nippon), Mamm. Biol.-Z. Säugetierkd., 2011, vol.76, pp.196–120.
Yang, C.Z., Xiao, Z., Guo, Y.S., Xiong, Y.Q., Zhang, X.Y., and Yue, B.S., Alarm signals of the Sichuan sika deer Cervus nippon sichuanicus, Zool. Sci., 2012, vol. 29, pp. 423–427.
Yen, S.C., Shieh, B.S., Wang, Y.T., and Wang, Y., Rutting vocalizations of Formosan sika deer Cervus nippon taiouanus: Acoustic structure, seasonal and diurnal variations, and Individuality, Zool. Sci., 2013, vol. 30, pp. 1025–1031.
Uno, H., and Kaji, K., Seasonal movements of female sika deer in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, Mammal. Study, 2000, vol. 25, pp. 45–47.
Igota, H., Sakuragi, M., Uno, H., Kaji, K., Kaneko, M., Akamatus, R., and Maekawa, K., Seasonal migration patterns of female sika deer in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, Ecol. Res., 2004, vol. 9, pp. 169–178.
Keel, M.K., Patterson, J.G., Noon, T.H., Bradley, G.A., and Collins, J.K., Caprine herpesivirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon), J. Vet. Diagn. Invest., 2003, vol. 15, pp. 179–183.
Pérez-Espona, S., Pemberton, J.M., and Putman, R., Red and sika deer in the British Isles: Current management issue and management policy, Mamm. Biol.-Z. Säugetierkd., 2009, vol. 74, pp. 247–262.
Guo, Y.S., and Zheng, H.Z., On the geological distribution, taxonomic status of species and evolutionary history of sika deer in China, Acta Theriol. Sin., 2000, vol. 20, pp.168–179.
Xu, H.F., Lu, H.J., Sheng, H.L., Gu, C.M., Status and current distribution of South China sika deer, China J. Biodiv., 1998, vol. 6, pp. 87–91.
Wu, H.L., Wu, X.B., and Gong, G.B., Current Status of sika deer resource in Wanjia Town, Ninguo City, Ahui Province, China J. Zool., 2003, vol. 38, pp. 54–57.
Jiang, Z.G., Xu, X.R., Liu, W.H., Li, C.L., Li, C.W., Lu, X.L., Xiao, J.P., Li, Y.K., Tang, S.H., Ping, X.G., Li, F., Luo, Z.H., Fang, H.X., Xu, B., Zhang, J.H., et al., Population status of South China sika deer in Taohongling National Nature Reserve, China J. Wildl., 2012, vol. 33, pp. 305–308.
Cheng, Z.F., Weng, D.M., and Yu, P.X., Population status of South China sika deer in Qinglingfeng National Nature Reserve, Prot. For. Sci. Tech., 2012, vol. 6, pp. 57–59.
Yan, L., Jiangxi Pengze found sika deer, China J. Wildl., 1983, vol. 4, pp.40.
Tu, X.B. and Wang, Y.S., The resources situation of sika deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve, China J. Wildl., 2000, pp. 38–39.
Jiang, Z.G., Biodiversity and Sika Deer in the Taohongling Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, Beijing: Tsinghua Univ. Press, 2009.
Jacobs, J., Quantitative measurement of food selection, a modification of the forage ratio and Ivlev’s electivity index, Oecologia, 1974, vol. 14, pp. 413–417.
Schweiger, A.K., Nopp-Mayr, U., and Zohmann, M., Small-scale habitat use of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix L.) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta helvetica Thienemann) in the Austrian Apls, Eur. J. Wildl. Res., 2012, vol. 58, pp. 35–45.
Takatsuki, S., Effect of sika deer on vegetation in Japan: A review, Biol. Conserv., 2009, vol. 142, pp. 1922–1929.
Bowyer, R.T., Kie, J.G., and Ballenberghe, V.V., Habitat selection by neonatal black-tailed deer: Climate, forage, or risk of predation?, J. Mammal., 1998, vol. 79, pp. 415–425.
Jarman, P.J., The social organisation of antelope in relation to their ecology, Behaviour, 1974, vol. 48, pp. 215–267.
Canon, S.K., and Bryant, F.C., Bed-sited characteristics of pronghorn fawns, J. Wild. Manag., 1997, vol. 48, pp. 1050–1053.
Management office of Taohongling Nature Reserve, Sika Deer in Taohongling Nature Reserve in Jinagxi, Beijing: China Forestry Press, 2000.
Jiang, Z.W., Xu, L., Wang, Y.Q., Jiao, P.R., and Liu, H.F., Winter resting site selection by roe deer at Huzhong, Daxinganling Mountains, Northeastern China, Zool, Res., 1996, vol. 17, pp. 108–128.
Phillips, G.E., and Alldrge, A.W., Reproductive success of elk following disturbance by humans during calving season, J. Wildl. Manag., 2000, vol. 64, pp. 521–530.
Luo, Y., Zhang, M.M., Liu, Z.S., Li, Z.G., Hu, T.H., and Wang, J.F., Habitat selection of sympatric blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and red deer (Cervus elaphus alxaicus) during rutting periods in the Helan Mountains, China, Acta Ecol. Sin., 2010, vol. 30, pp. 3744–3751.
Minami, M., and Kawamichi, T., Vocal repertoires and classification of sika deer Cervus nippon, J. Mammal. Soc. Japan, 1992, vol. 17, pp. 71–94.
Wu, W.G., Current situation and management counter measure of Jiangxi Taohongling Sika deer National Nature Reserve, Sichuan J. Zool., 2008, vol. 27, pp. 457–459.
Pearson, S.M., Turner, M.G., Wallace, L.L., and Romme, W.H., Winter habitat use by large ungulates following fire in northern Yellowstone National Park, Ecol. Appl., 1995, vol. 5, pp. 744–755.
Carlson, P.C., Tanner, G.W., Wood, J.M., and Humphrey, S. R., Fire in key deer habitat improves browse, prevents succession, and preserves endemic herbs, J. Wildl. Manag., 1993, vol. 57, pp. 914–928.
Hugh, S.R., Downald, D.K., and John, C.G., Habitat Selection by Mule Deer in Southeastern British Columbia, Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program, 2006.
The article is published in the original.
About this article
Cite this article
Li, J., Li, Y.K. & Liu, W.H. Autumn bed site selection by sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the Taohongling National Nature Reserve, China. Russ J Ecol 48, 384–391 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413617040105
- Transect lines
- Habitat selection
- Bed sites
- Management strategies