Skip to main content

Assessment of Soils and Plants Loss as a Result of Darrezar Copper Mining in South-Eastern Iran

Abstract

The study of soil genesis and classification for land management, restoration and protection of soils in the mountainous basin of Darrezar copper mining company were done. With attention to the effects of the vertical zones on soil climate variability, the soil thermal and moisture regimes and soil classification in the area was established. The landforms based on topography and lithology parameters altitude, slope, aspect and depositions) were classified. Soil classifications were done using direct soil samples studies and geographic information system (GIS), showing temperature and moisture regimes. and Using GIS with digital elevation model (DEM) till mining and comparison to current soil map were simulated 6 soils subgroups in degraded lands. More than 70% of lost soils were in 3 subgroups, Lithic Torriorthents, Lithic Haploxerepts and Typic Haplocalcids. The vegetation types in these three soils were in two association types: Amygdaluse sp.–Pistacia sp.–Artemisia sp. and Amygdaluse sp.–Artemisia sp. The soil loss was estimated to about US$ 8 million. Also in Darrezar copper mine in average has destroyed about 27 ha land surface with minimum cost about US$ 2 million per year from 2008 until 2020.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.

REFERENCES

  1. 1

    A. Kelemen, W. Munch, H. Poelman, Z. Gakova, L. Dijkstra, and B. Torighelli, The Climate Change Challenge for European Regions (European Commission, Brussels, 2009).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    M. Akhavan Ghalibaf, Soil Survey, Land Evaluation and Classification with Agro Ecological Systems in the Watershed of Yazd-Ardakan Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (Arid Land and Desert Research Inst., Yazd Univ., Yazd, 2004).

  3. 3

    N. T. Arndut, L. Fontboté, J. W. Hedenquist, S. E. Kesler, J. F. H. Thompson, and D. G. Wood, “Future global mineral resources,” Geochem. Persp. 6, 1–171 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    J. Bech, M. M. Abreu, and H. T. Chon, “Management and reclamation of mining site soils,” in Proceedings of the 20th World Congress of Soil Science, June 8–13, 2014 (Jeju, 2014).

  5. 5

    A. Cruz-Ruíz, E. Cruz-Ruíz, R. Vaca, P. Del Aguila, and J. Lugo, “Effects of pumice mining on soil quality,” Solid Earth 7, 1–9 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    The world of economy, 2020. https://donya-e-eqtesad. com.

  7. 7

    A. Elshkaki, T. E. Graedel, L. Ciacci, and B. K. Reck, “Resource demand scenarios for the major metals,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 52, 2491–2497 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    M. K. Emil, MSc Thesis (Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara, 2010).

  9. 9

    Field Identifier of Russian Soils (Dokuchaev Soil Science Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2008) [In Russian].

  10. 10

    M. K. Ghos, “Effect of open cast mining on soil fertility,” J. Sci. Ind. Res. 63, 1006–1009 (2004).

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    B. Hasani-Mahmui, Climate change, 2017. http:// www.climatechange.ir/tags/Precipitation.html.

  12. 12

    G. Kavlak and T. E. Graedel, “Global anthropogenic selenium cycles for 1940–2010,” Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 73, 17–22 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    K. Kebir, The history of copper mining in Darrezar, 2019. http://shalaleh.blogfa.com.

  14. 14

    Soil Survey Staff, Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. (USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC, 2014).

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    N. B. Khitrov and A. A. Ponizovskii, Methods of Laboratory Analyses for Neutral and Alkaline Soils (Dokuchaev Soil Science Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1990) [in Russian].

  16. 16

    I. I. Lebedeva, and M. I. Gerasimova, “Factors of soil formation in soil classification systems,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 42, 1412–1418 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1134/10.1134/S1064229309120138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    J. Lloyd, New USDA climate zone map reflects northward warming trends, USA Today, 2012. https://www. usatoday.com/news/nation/climate-zone. Accessed March 30, 2012.

  18. 18

    R. P. Mbaya, “Land degradation due to mining: the Gunda scenario,” Int. J. Geogr. Geol. 2 (12), 144–158 (2013).

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    A. K. Mensah, “Role of re vegetation in restoring fertility of degraded mined soils in Ghana: a review,” Int. J. Biodiversity Conserv. 7 (2), 57–80 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    H. Michael and N. Gillespie, Lumwana Copper Project: Environmental Impact Assessment (Equinox Copper Ventures, Luanshya, CP, 2005).

  21. 21

    M. Moazzenzade, A. Tabatabai, and H. Hasani-Mahmui, “Causes of producing acid wastes in Darrezar copper mine,” in Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Health, Safety and the Environment in Mines and Mineral Industries (Perth, 2011).

  22. 22

    E. U. Onweremadu, “Assessment on mined soils in erosion-degraded farmlands in South-East Nigeria,” Estud. Biol. 28 (65), 59–67 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    P. Orlov, Mineral Resource Base of Iran, Foreign Geology (Institute of Geology of Foreign Countries, Moscow, 1993) [in Russian].

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    L. B. Phelps, “Unit operation of reclamation, surface mining,” in Surface Mining, Ed. by B. Kennedy (Society for mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Littleton, CO, 1990), pp. 770–776.

  25. 25

    A. Ravankhah, M. Moayed, S. Amini, and Q. Hosseinzadeh. “Geological, petrological, economic geological and alteration zones studies in Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit (southwest of Kerman),” J. Iran. Geol. Winter, 3 (12), 63–75 (2009).

  26. 26

    M.A. Reuter, K. Heiskanen, U. Boin, A. van Schaik, E. Verhoef, Y. Yang, and G. Gorgalli, The Metrics of Material and Metal Ecology (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005). ISBN 9780444511379

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    N. Rötzer and M. Schmidt, “Historical, current, and future energy demand from global copper production and its impact on climate change,” Resources 9 (4), 44 (2020), https://doi.org/10.3390/resources9040044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    M. A. Salehpoor, The history of Pariz villages, 2019. http://www.tamadonha.com.

  29. 29

    K. Sarma, MSc Thesis (International Institute for Geoinformation Sciences and Earth Observation, Enschede, AE, 2005), p. 85.

  30. 30

    V. Sheoran, A. S. Sheoran, and P. Poonia, “Soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation: a review,” Int. J. Soil, Sediment Water 3 (2), 13 (2010).

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    L. Shishov, V. Tonkonogov, I. Lebedeva, and M. Gerasimova, Principles, Structure and Prospects of the New Russian Soil Classification System, European Soil Bureau Research Report No. 7 (European Soil Bureau, Ispra, 2020). https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu.

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    G. Sikaundi, Copper Mining Industry: Zambia Environmental Challenges (Environmental Council of Zambia, Lusaka, 2016).

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    F. Solomon, Impacts of Copper on Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Health (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 2008).

    Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, National Center for Atmospheric Research. http:// www.eo.ucar.edu/basics/cc_1.html. Accessed April 30, 2018.

  35. 35

    Tools for consumers and designers of solar. http:// sunearthtools.com. Accessed April 12, 2019.

  36. 36

    M. Trnka, D. Semerádová, M. Dubrovský, Z. Zalud, M. Svoboda, M. Hayes, and D. Wilhite, Drought event probability in the Czech Republic under the present and changed climatic conditions, 2004. http://www. ufa.cas.cz/dub/…/2004-blava-mirek. Accessed April 30, 2018.

  37. 37

    W. J. Waltman, E. J. Ciolkosz, M. J. Mausbach, M. D. Svoboda, D. A. Miller, and P. J. Kolb, Soil Climate Regimes of Pennsylvania, Penn State Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. no. 873 (Pennsylvania State University Agricultural Experiment Station, University Park, PA, 1997).

  38. 38

    IUSS Working Group WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015, International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps, World Soil Resources Reports No. 106 (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2015).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Amin.

Ethics declarations

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Amin, P., Akhavan-Ghalibaf, M. Assessment of Soils and Plants Loss as a Result of Darrezar Copper Mining in South-Eastern Iran. Eurasian Soil Sc. 54, 1608–1617 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229321100021

Download citation

Keywords:

  • soil genesis and classification
  • mine degraded soils
  • mountainous basin
  • arid climate
  • plant restoring