To investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 efflux from the soil surface in a temperate cropland and to quantify the effects of soil temperature, soil water content, N fertilization and plant growth on soil carbon dioxide efflux (Rs) field and lab experiments were performed. The field experiment was conducted in a cropland site with a conventional farming system in Central Hungary. The temporal changes of Rs were estimated using a closed chamber IRGA system about bi-weekly/monthly between November 2017–November 2019 in 10 positions. The measured average soil CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.06 ± 0.007 to 7.04 ± 0.44 µmol CO2 m–2 s–1 Soil respiration model including soil temperature (Ts), soil water content (SWC) and the incorporation of VIgreen (plant growth and functioning) gave a higher goodness-of-fit value (r2 = 0.54) than the simple temperature response. According to our field results, different variables including Ts, SWC and VIgreen play a principal role in the carbon cycle of the investigated cropland. We further investigated the effects of the main drivers in a laboratory experiment with the same soil. Closed chamber technique was used for measuring the emission of carbon dioxide by a Picarro G1101-i gas analyzer. We also introduced a fertilization experiment: three different N treatments were applied (N0, N75 and N150) with different levels of soil water content on the soil planted with maize and bare soil. According to our laboratory results, the cumulative CO2 efflux from soil was found to have a positive correlation with plant growth and with N fertilizer rate: as higher plant biomass and more N added, more CO2 was emitted, whereas, the cumulative emissions values from planted soil were around two times higher than in bare soil in all treatments. Significant positive correlations were found between CO2 efflux and SWC indicating that the soil water content was the main factor limiting the rate of the CO2 emission from soil in both planted and bare soil, in which the cumulative CO2 efflux was increased with the increase in soil water content, and it was almost three times higher in planted soils at higher soil moisture level than in the bare soil. We can conclude that the effects of plant presence and soil moisture on soil respiration had similar magnitude; however, the effect of N addition was small.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
R. Z. Abramoff and A. C. Finzi, “Are above- and below-ground phenology in sync?” New Phytol. 205 (3), 1054–1061 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13111
M. M. Al-Kaisi, M. L. Kruse, and J. E. Sawyer, “Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application on growing season soil carbon dioxide emission in a corn-soybean rotation,” J. Environ. Qual. 37 (2), 325–332 (2008). https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0240
A. S. Allen and W. H. Schlesinger, “Nutrient limitations to soil microbial biomass and activity in loblolly pine forests,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 36 (4), 581–589 (2004).
M. Bahn, M. Rodeghiero, M. Anderson-Dunn, S. Dore, C. Gimeno, M. Drösler, M. Williams, C. Ammann, F. Berninger, C. Flechard, S. Jones, M. Balzarolo, S. Kumar, C. Newesely, T. Priwitzer, et al., “Soil respiration in European grasslands in relation to climate and assimilate supply,” Ecosystems 11 (8), 1352–1367 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-008-9198-0
J. Balogh, S. Fóti, M. Papp, K. Pintér, and Z. Nagy, “Separating the effects of temperature and carbon allocation on the diel pattern of soil respiration in the different phenological stages in dry grasslands,” PLoS One 14 (10), 1–19 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223247
J. Balogh, M. Papp, K. Pintér, S. Fóti, K. Posta, W. Eugster, and Z. Nagy, “Autotrophic component of soil respiration is repressed by drought more than the heterotrophic one in dry grasslands,” Biogeosciences 13 (18), 5171–5182 (2016). https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-5171-2016
J. Balogh, K. Pintér, S. Fóti, D. Cserhalmi, M. Papp, and Z. Nagy, “Dependence of soil respiration on soil moisture, clay content, soil organic matter, and CO2 uptake in dry grasslands,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 43 (5), 1006–1013 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.01.017
F. Bao, G. Zhou, F. Wang, and X. Sui, “Partitioning soil respiration in a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia using exponential regression method,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 (12), 2339–2341 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.08.033
X. Bao, X. Zhu, X. Chang, S. Wang, B. Xu, C. Luo, Z. Zhang, Q. Wang, Y. Rui, and X. Cui, “Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration on the Tibetan plateau,” PLoS One 11 (10), e0165212 (2016).
R. D. Bardgett, W. D. Bowman, R. Kaufmann, and S. K. Schmidt, “A temporal approach to linking aboveground and belowground ecology,” Trends Ecol. Evol. 20 (11), 634–641 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2005.08.005
B. Bond-Lamberty, C. Wang, and S. T. Gower, “A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration?” Global Change Biol. 10 (10), 1756–1766 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00816.x
M. Bonkowski, “Protozoa and plant growth: the microbial loop in soil revisited,” New Phytol. 162 (3), 617–631 (2004).
M. Bonkowski, W. Cheng, B. S. Griffiths, J. Alphei, and S. Scheu, “Microbial-faunal interactions in the rhizosphere and effects on plant growth,” Eur. J. Soil Biol. 36 (3–4), 135–147 (2000).
N. Brüggemann, A. Gessler, Z. Kayler, S.G. Keel, F. Badeck, M. Barthel, P. Boeckx, N. Buchmann, E. Brugnoli, J. Esperschütz, O. Gavrichkova, J. Ghashghaie, N. Gomez-Casanovas, C. Keitel, A. Knohl, et al., “Carbon allocation and carbon isotope fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum: a review,” Biogeosciences 8 (11), 3457–3489 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-3457-2011
D. L. Burton and E. G. Beauchamp, “Profile nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in a soil subject to freezing,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58 (1), 115–122 (1994).
M. S. Carbone, C. J. Still, A. R. Ambrose, T. E. Dawson, A. P. Williams, C. M. Boot, S. M. Schaeffer, and J. P. Schimel, “Seasonal and episodic moisture controls on plant and microbial contributions to soil respiration,” Oecologia 167, 265–278 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-011-1975-3
C.-T. Chang, D. Sperlich, S. Sabaté, E. Sánchez-Costa, M. Cotillas, J. M. Espelta, and C. Gracia, “Mitigating the stress of drought on soil respiration by selective thinning: contrasting effects of drought on soil respiration of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest,” Forests 7 (11), 263 (2016).
Q. Chen, D. U. Hooper, and S. Lin, “Shifts in species composition constrain restoration of overgrazed grassland using nitrogen fertilization in Inner Mongolian steppe, China,” PLoS One 6 (3), e16909 (2011).
S. Chen, J. Zou, Z. Hu, H. Chen, and Y. Lu, “Global annual soil respiration in relation to climate, soil properties and vegetation characteristics: Summary of available data,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 198, 335–346 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.08.020
Z. Chen, Y. Xu, J. Fan, H. Yu, and W. Ding, “Soil autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration in response to different N fertilization and environmental conditions from a cropland in Northeast China,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 110, 103–115 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.03.011
J. Curiel Yuste, D.D. Baldocchi, A. Gershenson, A. Goldstein, L. Misson, and S. Wong, “Microbial soil respiration and its dependency on carbon inputs, soil temperature and moisture,” Global Change Biol. 13 (9), 2018–2035 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01415.x
E. Daly, A. C. Oishi, A. Porporato, and G. G. Katul, “A stochastic model for daily subsurface CO2 concentration and related soil respiration,” Adv. Water Resour. 31 (7), 987–994 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.04.001
E. A. Davidson, E. Belk, and R. D. Boone, “Soil water content and temperature as independent or confounded factors controlling soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forest,” Global Change Biol. 4 (2), 217–227 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.1998.00128.x
E. A. Davidson, I. A. Janssens, and Y. Lou, “On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q 10,” Global Change Biol. 12 (2), 154–164 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.01065.x
E. A. Davidson, S. Samanta, S. S. Caramori, and K. Savage, “The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis–Menten kinetics model for decomposition of soil organic matter at hourly to seasonal time scales,” Global Change Biol. 18 (1), 371–384 (2012).
E. A. Davidson, L. V. Verchot, J. Henrique Cattânio, I. L. Ackerman, and J. E. M. Carvalho, “Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia,” Biogeochemistry 48 (1), 53–69 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006204113917
H. S. Dhadli, B. S. Brar, and T. A. Black, “Influence of crop growth and weather variables on soil CO2 emissions in a maize-wheat cropping system,” Agric. Res. J. 52 (3), 28–34 (2015).
D. Dhital, S. Prajapati, S. R. Maharjan, and H. Koizumi, “Soil carbon dioxide emission: soil respiration measurement in temperate grassland, Nepal,” J. Environ. Prot. 10 (2), 289–314 (2019). https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2019.102017
J. Ding, L. Chen, B. Zhang, L. Liu, G. Yang, K. Fang, Y. Chen, F. Li, D. Kou, and C. Ji, “Linking temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 release to substrate, environmental, and microbial properties across alpine ecosystems,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 30 (9), 1310–1323 (2016).
W. Ding, H. Yu, Z. Cai, F. Han, and Z. Xu, “Responses of soil respiration to N fertilization in a loamy soil under maize cultivation,” Geoderma 155 (3–4), 381–389 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.12.023
F. E. Dreesen, H. J. De Boeck, I. A. Janssens, and I. Nijs, “Do successive climate extremes weaken the resistance of plant communities? An experimental study using plant assemblages,” Biogeosciences 11 (1), 109–121 (2014). https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-109-2014
S. H. Drotz, T. Sparrman, M. B. Nilsson, J. Schleucher, and M. G. Öquist, “Both catabolic and anabolic heterotrophic microbial activity proceed in frozen soils,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107 (49), 21046–21051 (2010).
C. Fang and J. B. Moncrieff, “A model for soil CO2 production and transport 1: Model development,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 95 (4), 225–236 (1999).
J. Feng, J. Wang, L. Ding, P. Yao, M. Qiao, and S. Yao, “Meta-analyses of the effects of major global change drivers on soil respiration across China,” Atmos. Environ. 150, 181–186 (2017).
L. B. Flanagan and B. G. Johnson, “Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 130 (3–4), 237–253 (2005).
D. Gaumont-Guay, T. A. Black, T. J. Griffis, A. G. Barr, R. S. Jassal, and Z. Nesic, “Interpreting the dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and water content in a boreal aspen stand,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 140 (1–4), 220–235 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.08.003
A. A. Gitelson, Y. J. Kaufman, R. Stark, and D. Rundquist, “Novel algorithms for remote estimation of vegetation fraction,” Remote Sens. Environ. 80 (1), 76–87 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-4257(01)00289-9
N. Gomez-Casanovas, R. Matamala, D. R. Cook, and M. A. Gonzalez-Meler, “Net ecosystem exchange modifies the relationship between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration with abiotic factors in prairie grasslands,” Global Change Biol. 18 (8), 2532–2545 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02721.x
P. J. Hanson, N. T. Edwards, C. T. Garten, and J. A. Andrews, “Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observations,” Biogeochemistry 48, 115–146 (2000).
C. W. Harper, J. M. Blair, P. A. Fay, A. K. Knapp, and J. D. Carlisle, “Increased rainfall variability and reduced rainfall amount decreases soil CO2 flux in a grassland ecosystem,” Global Change Biol. 11 (2), 322–334 (2005).
R. Hasibeder, L. Fuchslueger, A. Richter, and M. Bahn, “Summer drought alters carbon allocation to roots and root respiration in mountain grassland,” New Phytol. 205 (3), 1117–1127 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13146
M. N. Högberg, M. J. I. Briones, S. G. Keel, D. B. Metcalfe, C. Campbell, A. J. Midwood, B. Thornton, V. Hurry, S. Linder, T. Näsholm, and P. Högberg, “Quantification of effects of season and nitrogen supply on tree below-ground carbon transfer to ectomycorrhizal fungi and other soil organisms in a boreal pine forest,” New Phytol. 187 (2), 485–493 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03274.x
Y. Hosen, H. Tsuruta, and K. Minami, “Effects of the depth of NO and N2O productions in soil on their emission rates to the atmosphere: analysis by a simulation model,” Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 57 (1), 83–98 (2000).
B. Huang and J. Fu, “Photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon allocation of two cool-season perennial grasses in response to surface soil drying,” Plant Soil 227 (1–2), 17–26 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026512212113
N. Huang, Z. Niu, Y. Zhan, S. Xu, M.C. Tappert, C. Wu, W. Huang, S. Gao, X. Hou, and D. Cai, “Relationships between soil respiration and photosynthesis-related spectral vegetation indices in two cropland ecosystems,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 160, 80–89 (2012).
J. Ingrisch, S. Karlowsky, A. Anadon-Rosell, R. Hasibeder, A. König, A. Augusti, G. Gleixner, and M. Bahn, “Land use alters the drought responses of productivity and CO2 fluxes in mountain grassland,” Ecosystems 21 (4), 689–703 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0178-0
I. A. Janssens, W. Dieleman, S. Luyssaert, J.-A. Subke, M. Reichstein, R. Ceulemans, P. Ciais, A. J. Dolman, J. Grace, and G. Matteucci, “Reduction of forest soil respiration in response to nitrogen deposition,” Nat Geosci. 3 (5), 315–322 (2010).
H. Jiang, Q. Deng, G. Zhou, D. Hui, D. Zhang, S. Liu, G. Chu, and J. Li, “Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China,” Biogeosciences 10 (6), 3963 (2013).
A. E. Johnston, P. R. Poulton, and K. Coleman, “Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes,” Adv. Agron. 101, 1–57 (2009).
M. S. Kadulin, I. E. Smirnova, and G. N. Koptsyk, “The emission of carbon dioxide from soils of the Pasvik nature reserve in the Kola Subarctic,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 50, 1055–1068 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229317090034
S. Karlowsky, A. Augusti, J. Ingrisch, R. Hasibeder, M. Lange, S. Lavorel, M. Bahn, and G. Gleixner, “Land use in mountain grasslands alters drought response and recovery of carbon allocation and plant-microbial interactions,” J. Ecol. 106 (3), 1230–1243 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12910
Y. Kuzyakov and A.A. Larionova, “Root and rhizomicrobial respiration: a review of approaches to estimate respiration by autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in soil,” J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 168 (4), 503–520 (2005).
J. Lee, J. W. Hopmans, C. van Kessel, A. P. King, K. J. Evatt, D. Louie, D. E. Rolston, and J. Six, “Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale in a Mediterranean climate,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 129 (4), 378–390 (2009).
. Li, Q. Ou, and Y. Chen, “Decomposition of China’s CO2 emissions from agriculture utilizing an improved Kaya identity,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21 (22), 13000–13006 (2014). 10.1007/s11356-014-3250-
Y. Li, M. Xu, O. J. Sun, and W. Cui, “Effects of root and litter exclusion on soil CO2 efflux and microbial biomass in wet tropical forests,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 36 (12), 2111–2114 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.06.003
J. Lloyd and J. A. Taylor, “On the temperature dependence of soil respiration,” Funct. Ecol. 8 (3), 315 (1994). https://doi.org/10.2307/2389824
V. O. Lopes de Gerenyu, I. N. Kurganova, L. N. Rozanova, and V. N. Kudeyarov, “Effect of soil temperature and moisture on CO2 evolution rate of cultivated phaeozem: analysis of a long-term field experiment,” Plant, Soil Environ. 51 (5), 213–219 (2005). https://doi.org/10.17221/3576-PSE
S. Manzoni, J. P. Schimel, and A. Porporato, “Responses of soil microbial communities to water stress: results from a meta-analysis,” Ecology 93 (4), 930–938 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0026.1
E. G. Mbonimpa, C. O. Hong, V. N. Owens, R. M. Lehman, S. L. Osborne, T. E. Schumacher, D. E. Clay, and S. Kumar, “Nitrogen fertilizer and landscape position impacts on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from a landscape seeded to switchgrass,” GCB Bioenergy 7 (4), 836–849 (2015).
F. E. Moyano, O. K. Atkin, M. Bahn, D. Bruhn, A. J. Burton, A. Heinemeyer, W. L. Kutsch, and G. Wieser, “Respiration from roots and the mycorrhizosphere,” in Soil Carbon Dynamics: An Integrated Methodology, Ed. by W. L. Kutsch, et al. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010), pp. 127–156. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511711794.008
F. E. Moyano, S. Manzoni, and C. Chenu, “Responses of soil heterotrophic respiration to moisture availability: An exploration of processes and models,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 59, 72–85 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.01.002
H. Muraoka, H. M. Noda, S. Nagai, T. Motohka, T. M. Saitoh, K. N. Nasahara, and N. Saigusa, “Spectral vegetation indices as the indicator of canopy photosynthetic productivity in a deciduous broadleaf forest,” J. Plant Ecol. 6 (5), 393–407 (2013).
S. Nagai, R. Ishii, A. Bin Suhaili, H. Kobayashi, M. Matsuoka, T. Ichie, T. Motohka, J. J. Kendawang, and R. Suzuki, “Usability of noise-free daily satellite-observed green–red vegetation index values for monitoring ecosystem changes in Borneo,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35 (23), 7910–7926 (2014).
Z. Nagy, K. Pintér, M. Pavelka, E. Darenová, and J. Balogh, “Carbon fluxes of surfaces vs. ecosystems: Advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems,” Biogeosciences 8 (9), 2523–2534 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-2523-2011
T. Nakano, M. Nemoto, and M. Shinoda, “Environmental controls on photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 148, 1456–1466 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.04.011
M. Papp, S. Fóti, Z. Nagy, K. Pintér, K. Posta, S. Fekete, Z. Csintalan, and J. Balogh, “Rhizospheric, mycorrhizal and heterotrophic respiration in dry grasslands,” Eur. J. Soil Biol. 85, 43–52 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2018.01.005
R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, 2019).
R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, 2018).
K. S. Ramirez, J. M. Craine, and N. Fierer, “Nitrogen fertilization inhibits soil microbial respiration regardless of the form of nitrogen applied,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 (12), 2336–2338 (2010).
M. Reichstein, E. Falge, D. Baldocchi, D. Papale, M. Aubinet, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, N. Buchmann, T. Gilmanov, A. Granier, T. Grünwald, K. Havránková, H. Ilvesniemi, D. Janous, A. Knohl, et al., “On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm,” Global Change Biol. 11 (9), 1424–1439 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.001002.x
M. Reichstein, A. Rey, A. Freibauer, J. Tenhunen, R. Valentini, J. Banza, P. Casals, Y. Cheng, J. M. Grünzweig, J. Irvine, R. Joffre, B. E. Law, D. Loustau, F. Miglietta, W. Oechel, et al., “Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17 (4), 1104 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1029/2003gb002035
D. Risk, L. Kellman, and H. Beltrami, “Carbon dioxide in soil profiles: production and temperature dependence,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (6), 1–4 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014002
K. Savage, E. A. Davidson, and J. Tang, “Diel patterns of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration among phenological stages,” Global Change Biol. 19 (4), 1151–1159 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12108
G. Schaufler, B. Kitzler, A. Schindlbacher, U. Skiba, M. A. Sutton, and S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern, “Greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different land use: effects of soil moisture and temperature,” Eur. J. Soil Sci. 61 (5), 683–696 (2010).
Z.-X. Shen, Y.-L. Li, and G. Fu, “Response of soil respiration to short-term experimental warming and precipitation pulses over the growing season in an alpine meadow on the Northern Tibet,” Appl. Soil Ecol. 90, 35–40 (2015).
K. A. Smith, T. Ball, F. Conen, K. E. Dobbie, J. Massheder, and A. Rey, “Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes,” Eur. J. Soil Sci. 69 (1), 10–20 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12539
Y. Talmon, M. Sternberg, and J. M. Grünzweig, “Impact of rainfall manipulations and biotic controls on soil respiration in Mediterranean and desert ecosystems along an aridity gradient,” Global Change Biol. 17 (2), 1108–1118 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02285.x
J. Tang, D. D. Baldocchi, and L. Xu, “Tree photosynthesis modulates soil respiration on a diurnal time scale,” Global Change Biol. 11 (8), 1298–1304 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00978.x
J. Tang, J. Wang, Z. Li, S. Wang, and Y. Qu, “Effects of irrigation regime and nitrogen fertilizer management on CH4, N2O and CO2 emissions from saline–alkaline paddy fields in Northeast China,” Sustainability 10 (2), 475 (2018). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020475
R. Vargas and M. F. Allen, “Dynamics of fine root, fungal rhizomorphs, and soil respiration in a mixed temperate forest: integrating sensors and observations,” Vadose Zone J. 7 (3), 1055–1064 (2008).
R. Vargas, D. D. Baldocchi, M. Bahn, P. J. Hanson, K. P. Hosman, L. Kulmala, J. Pumpanen, and B. Yang, “On the multi-temporal correlation between photosynthesis and soil CO2 efflux: reconciling lags and observations,” New Phytol. 191 (4), 1006–1017 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03771.x
S. Wan, R. J. Norby, J. Ledford, and J. F. Weltzin, “Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in a model old-field grassland,” Global Change Biol. 13 (11), 2411–2424 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01433.x
Z. Wang, L. Ji, X. Hou, and M. P. Schellenberg, “Soil respiration in semiarid temperate grasslands under various land management,” PLoS One 11 (3), e0151719 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147987
E. K. Webb, G. I. Pearman, and R. Leuning, “Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapor transfer,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 106, 85–100 (1980).
J. Whitaker, N. Ostle, A. T. Nottingham, A. Ccahuana, N. Salinas, R. D. Bardgett, P. Meir, and N. P. Mcnamara, “Microbial community composition explains soil respiration responses to changing carbon inputs along an Andes-to-Amazon elevation gradient,” J. Ecol. 102 (4), 1058–1071 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12247
X. Wu, Z. Yao, N. Brüggemann, Z. Y. Shen, B. Wolf, M. Dannenmann, X. Zheng, and K. Butterbach-Bahl, “Effects of soil moisture and temperature on CO2 and CH4 soil–atmosphere exchange of various land use/cover types in a semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia, China,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 (5), 773–787 (2010).
J. C. Yuste, I. A. Janssens, A. Carrara, L. Meiresonne, and R. Ceulemans, “Interactive effects of temperature and precipitation on soil respiration in a temperate maritime pine forest,” Tree Physiol. 23 (18), 1263–1270 (2003).
Q. Zhang, H. M. Lei, and D. W. Yang, “Seasonal variations in soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration of a wheat and maize rotation cropland in the North China Plain,” Agric. For. Meteorol. 180, 34–43 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.04.028
This study was supported by the Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarship and by the Ministry of Innovation and Technology within the framework of the Thematic Excellence Program 2020, Institutional Excellence Sub-Program (TKP2020-IKA-12) in the topic of water-related researches of Szent István University.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Insaf Malek, Bouteldja, M., Posta, K. et al. Responses of Soil Respiration to Biotic and Abiotic Drivers in a Temperate Cropland. Eurasian Soil Sc. 54, 1038–1048 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229321070097
- cumulative CO2 efflux
- N fertilization
- vegetation index