This study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of land use on chemical properties (organic carbon; pH; electrical conductivity; available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na), microbiological properties (basal soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and phosphatase activity), and physical property (moisture content) of salt-affected soils developed under different geographical locations and climate i.e. Hungary and India. In Hungary, soil samples were taken from two different soil types with different land uses such as arable land (Solonetz—HSNA) and pasture land (Solonetz—HSNP; Solonchak—HSCP) while in India samples were collected from Solonetz soil of different land uses, namely, arable (ISNA), pasture (ISNP) and bare land (ISNB). Based on chemical properties and moisture content, one-way ANOSIM (Analysis of similarities) proved that all six sites were statistically different from each other. The results of PCA showed that soil samples from Hungary and India must be separated unambiguously from each other; furthermore the Hungarian ones differing in soil type and land use could be also differentiated. Cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis) gave similar results for microbiological properties in Hungarian sites while in Indian sites, three land use practices were grouped into two clusters where the pasture land was grouped to both arable land and bare land. CCA results revealed that more than 86% of variation in microbiological properties were explained by the environmental factors.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
A. Alhameid, J. Singh, U. Sekaran, S. Kumar, and S. Singh, “Soil biological health: influence of crop rotational diversity and tillage on soil microbial properties,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 83 (5), 1431–1442 (2019). https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2018.03.0125
L. Batra and M. C. Manna, “Dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass carbon in salt-affected soils of semiarid and arid regions,” Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 11 (3), 295–303 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1080/15324989709381481
E. M. Bridges and L. R. Oldeman, “Global assessment of human-induced soil degradation,” Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 13, 319–325 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1080/089030699263212
P. C. Brookes, A. Landman, G. Pruden, and D. S. Jenkinson, “Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: a rapid direct extraction method for measuring microbial biomass nitrogen in soil,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 17, 837–842 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(85)90144-0
I. Buzás, Manual of Soil and Agrochemical Analysis, Vol. 2: Physical, Water Management and Mineralogical Analysis of the Soil (Budapest, 1988) [in Hungarian].
M. R. Carter, Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993).
M. R. Carter and P. R. Pearen, P.R., “Amelioration of a saline-sodic soil with low applications of calcium and nitrogen amendments,” Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 3 (1), 1–9 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1080/15324988909381184
L. E. Casida, D. A. Klein Jr., and T. Santoro, “Soil dehydrogenase activity,” Soil Sci. 98, 371–376 (1964).
Climate Change Impact on Salt-Affected Soils and Their Crop Productivity: CSSRI/Karnal/Technical Manual/2013/4, Ed. by S. K. Chaudhari, A. R. Chinchmalatpure, and D. K. Sharma (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 2019). https://krishikosh. egranth.ac.in/displaybitstream?handle=1/2046487.
M. R. Chaudhary, K. Naresh, Vivek, D. K. Sachan, Rehan, N. C. Mahajan, L. Jat, R. Tiwari, and A. Yadav, “Soil organic carbon fractions, soil microbial biomass carbon, and enzyme activities impacted by crop rotational diversity and conservation tillage in North West IGP: a review,” Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 7 (11), 3573–3600 (2018). https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.711.410
H. Chen, S. Marhan, N. Billen, and K. Stahl, “Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks as affected by different land uses in Baden-Württemberg (southwest Germany),” J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 172 (1), 32–42 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200700116
F. Cheng, X. Peng, P. Zhao, J. Yuan, C. Zhong, Y. Cheng, C. Cui, and S. Zhang, “Soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of main forest types in the Qinling Mountains,” PLoS One 8 (6), e67353 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067353
Vision-2050 (Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 2015).
R. C. Dalal, B. P. Harms, E. Krull, and W. J. Wang, “Total soil organic matter and its labile pools following mulga (Acacia aneura) clearing for pasture development and cropping 1. Total and labile carbon,” Aust. J. Soil Res. 43 (1), 13–20 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1071/SR04044
R. C. Dalal, M. C. Thornton, and B. A. Cowie, “Turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil assessed from δ13C and δ15N changes under pasture and cropping practices and estimates of greenhouse gas emissions,” Sci. Total Environ. 465, 26–35 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.101
H. Egner, H. Riehm, and W. Domingo, “Untersuchungen uber die chemische Bodenanalyse als Grundlage fur die Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Böden. II. Chemische Extraktionsmethoden zur Phosphor- und Kaliumbestimmung,” K. Lantbruksstyr. Ann. 26, 199–215.
N. K. Fageria, H. R. Gheyi, and A. Moreira, “Nutrient bioavailability in salt-affected soil,” J. Plant Nutr. 34 (7), 945–962 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2011.555578
Guidelines for Soil Description, 4th ed. (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2006).
A. C. Câmara Ferreira, L. F. Carvalho Leite, A. S. Ferreira de Araújo, and N. Eisenhauer, “Land-use type effects on soil organic carbon and microbial properties in a semi-arid region of northeast Brazil,” Land Degrad. Dev. 27 (2), 171–178 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2282
A. J. Franzluebbers, F. M. Hons, and D. A. Zuberer, “Tillage and crop effect on seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 evolution, water content, temperature, and bulk density,” Appl. Soil Ecol. 2, 95–109 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1016/0929-1393(94)00044-8
A. K. Gelaw, B. R. Singh, and R. Lal, “Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks under different land uses in a semi-arid watershed in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 188, 256–263 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.02.035
S. R. Grattan and C. M. Grieve, “Salinity–mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops,” Sci. Hortic. (Amsterdam) 78, 127–157 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(98)00192-7
L. B. Guo and R. M. Gifford, “Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis,” Glob. Change Biol. 8 (4), 345–360 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1354-1013.2002.00486.x
T. J. Hatton, J. Ruprecht, and R. J. George, “Preclearing hydrology of the Western Australia wheatbelt: target for the future?” Plant Soil 257 (2), 341–356 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027310511299
P. Hinsinger, C. Plassard, C. Tang, and B. Jaillard, “Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review,” Plant Soil 248 (1), 43–59 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022371130939
R. A. Houghton, “How well do we know the flux of CO2 from land use change?” Tellus B 62, 337–351 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00473.x
P. Iovieno and E. Bååth, “Effect of drying and rewetting on bacterial growth rates in soil,” FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 65, 400–407 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2008.00524.x
IUSS Working Group WRB, World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015, International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps, World Soil Resources Reports No. 106 (UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 2015).
C. B. Iwai, A. N. Oo, and B. Topark-ngarm, “Soil property and microbial activity in natural salt-affected soils in an alternating wet–dry tropical climate,” Geoderma 189–190, 144–152 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.05.001
S. Jalili, H. Moazed, S. Boroomand Nasab, and A. A. Naseri, “Assessment of evaporation and salt accumulation in bare soil: constant shallow water table depth with saline ground water,” Sci. Res. Essays 6 (29), 6068–6074 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5897/SRE11.509
F. Jassó, B. Horváth, B. Izsó, L. Király, L. Parászka, and G. Szabóné Kele, Guideline for the Large-Scale Soil Mapping of Hungary (Agroinform, Budapest, 1989) [in Hungarian].
A. C. Kennedy and R. I. Papendick, “Microbial characteristics of soil quality,” J. Soil Water Conserv. 50 (3), 243–248 (1995).
R. Lal, R. F. Follett, J. M. Kimble, and C. V. Cole, “Managing US crop land to sequester carbon in soil”. J. Soil Water Conserv. 54 (1), 374–381 (1999).
H. Lambers, “Dryland salinity: a key environmental issue in southern Australia,” Plant Soil 257, 5–7 (2003).
J. Lemanowicz and A. Bartkowiak, “Changes in the activity of phosphatase and the content of phosphorus in salt-affected soils grassland habitat Natura 2000,” Pol. J. Soil Sci. 49 (2), 149–165 (2016). https://doi.org/10.17951/pjss.2016.49.2.149
A. K. Mandal, R. C. Sharma, and G. Singh, “Assessment of salt affected soils in India using GIS,” Geocarto Int. 24 (6), 437–456 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1080/10106040902781002
S. Mandal, R. Raju, A. Kumar, P. Kumar, and P. Sharma, “Current status of research, technology response and policy needs of salt-affected soils in India: a review,” J. Indian Soc. Coastal Agric. Res. 36 (2), 40–53 (2018).
A. Mehlich, Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na and NH 4 (Department of Agriculture, Agronomic Division, Soil Testing Division, Raleigh, NC, 1953).
S. Muhammad, T. Müller, and R. G. Joergensen, “Compost and P amendments for stimulating microorganisms and maize growth in a saline soil from Pakistan in comparison with a nonsaline soil from Germany,” J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 170 (6), 745–751 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200625122
M. N. Nielsen and A. Winding, Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health: Technical Report No. 388 (National Environmental Research Institute, Silkeborg, 2002).
V. C. Pandey, K. Singh, B. Singh, and R. P. Singh, “New approaches to enhance eco- restoration efficiency of degraded sodic lands: critical research needs and future prospects,” Ecol. Restor. 29 (4), 322–325 (2011).
C. E. Pankhurst, B. G. Hawke, H. J. McDonald, C. A. Kirkby, J. C. Buckerfield, P. Michelsen, K. A. O’Brien, V. V. S. R. Gupta, and B. M. Doube, “Evaluation of soil biological properties as potential bioindicators of soil health,” Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 35, 1015–1028 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1071/EA9951015
M. G. Pitman and A. Läuchli, “Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystems,” in Salinity: Environment–Plants–Molecules, Ed. by A. Läuchli and U. Lüttge (Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht, 2002), pp. 3–20.
D. L. N. Rao and H. Pathak, “Ameliorative influence of organic matter on biological activity of salt-affected soils,” Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 10 (4), 311–319 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1080/15324989609381446
N. Rietz and R. J. Haynes, “Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 845–854 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00125-1
J. Rousk, F. K. Elyaagubi, D. L. Jones, and D. L. Godbold, “Bacterial salt tolerance is unrelated to soil salinity across an arid agroecosystem salinity gradient,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 1881–1887 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.05.007
S. K. Sanyal and S. K. De Datta, “Chemistry of phosphorus transformations in soil,” in Advances in Soil Science, Ed. by B. A. Stewart (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991), Vol. 16, pp. 1–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3144-8_1
R. Setia, P. Marschner, J. Baldock, D. Chittleborough, and V. Verma, “Relationships between carbon dioxide emission and soil properties in salt-affected landscapes,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 667–674 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.12.004
M. L. Silveira, N. B. Comerford, K. R. Reddy, J. Prenjer, and W. J. DeBusk, “Soil properties as indicators of disturbance in forest ecosystems of Georgia, USA,” Ecol. Indic. 9, 740–747 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.09.006
K. Singh, “Microbial and enzyme activities of saline and sodic soils,” Land Degrad. Rehabil. 27, 706–718 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2385
K. Singh, P. Trivedi, G. Singh, B. Singh, and D. D. Patra, “Effect of different leaf litters on carbon, nitrogen and microbial activities of sodic soils,” Land Degrad. Dev. 27 (4), 1215–1226 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2313
P. Smith, D. S. Powlson, J. U. Smith, P. Falloon, and K. Coleman, “Meeting Europe’s climate change commitments: quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture,” Global Change Biol. 6 (5), 525–539 (2000). https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.00331.x
P. Sparling, “Ratio of microbial biomass carbon to soil organic carbon as a sensitive indicator of changes in soil organic matter,” Aust. J. Soil Res. 30, 195–207 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9920195
P. Sparling, “Soil microbial biomass, activity and nutrient cycling as indicators of soil health,” in Biological Indicators of Soil Health, Ed. by C. E. Pankhurst, V. V. S. R. Gupta, and B. Doube (CAB Int., Wallingford, 1997), pp. 97–119.
P. Stefanovits, Brown Forest Soils of Hungary, 2nd ed. (Akadëmiai Kiadö, Budapest, 1971), pp. 179–182.
D. L. Suarez, “Sodic soil reclamation: modeling and field study,” Aust. J. Soil Res. 39, 1225–1246 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1071/SR00094
Methodology of the Genetic Farm Scale Soil Mapping, Ed. by I. Szabolcs (Orslagos Mezögazdasagi Minösitö Intezet, Budapest, 1966) [in Hungarian].
I. Szabolcs, Review on Research of Salt-Affected Soils (UNESCO, Paris, 1979).
I. Szabolcs and G. Várallyay, “Limiting factors of soil fertility in Hungary,” Agrokem. Talajtan 27 (1–2), 181–202 (1978).
M. A. Tabatabai and J. M. Bremner, “Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 1, 301–307 (1969). https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(69)90012-1
K. Tanji and W. W. Wallender, “Nature and extent of agricultural salinity and sodicity,” in Agricultural Salinity Assessment and Management, Ed. by W. W. Wallender and K. K. Tanji (American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784411698.ch01
M. Tejada, C. Garcia, J. L. Gonzalez, and M. T. Hernandez, “Use of organic amendment as a strategy for saline soil remediation: influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 38, 1413–1421 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.10.017
S. Tripathi, S. Kumari, A. Chakraborty, A. Gupta, K. Chakrabarti, and B. K. Bandyapadhyay, “Microbial biomass and its activities in salt-affected coastal soils,” Biol. Fertil. Soils 42, 273–277 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-005-0037-6
E. D. Vance, P. C. Brookes, and D. C. Jenkinson, “An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C,” Soil Biol. Biochem. 19, 703–707 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90052-6
A. Walkley and I. A. Black, “An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method,” Soil Sci. 37 (1), 29–38 (1934).
T. G. Weldmichael, E. Michéli, H. Fodor, and B. Simon, “The influence of depth on soil chemical properties and microbial respiration in the upper soil horizons,” Eurasian Soil Sci. 53, 780–786 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229320060137
J. Wichern, F. Wichern, and R. G. Joergensen, “Impact of salinity on soil microbial communities and the decomposition of maize in acidic soils,” Geoderma 137 (1–2), 100–108 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.08.001
B. Wick, R. F. Kühne, and P. L. G. Vlek, “Soil microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under improved fallow management systems in south-western Nigeria,” Plant Soil 202, 97–107 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004305615397
H. Winja and M. G. M. Bruggenwert, Salinization and Sodication of the Soils in Office du Niger (Mali), a Quantitative Approach (Vakgroep Bodemkunde en Plantevoeding, Wageningen, 1994).
V. N. L. Wong, R. C. Dalal, and R. S. B. Greene, “Salinity and sodicity effects on respiration and microbial biomass of soil,” Biol. Fertil. Soils 44, 943–953 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-008-0279-1
V. N. L. Wong, R. S. B. Greene, R. C. Dalal, and B. W. Murphy, “Soil carbon dynamics in saline and sodic soils: a review,” Soil Use Manage. 26, 2–11 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2009.00251.x
C. Yuan, Z. Li, H. Liu, M. Gao, and Y. Zhang, “Microbial biomass and activity in salt-affected soil under arid condition,” Appl. Soil Ecol. 35, 319–328 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2006.07.004
T.-B. Zhang, Y. Kang, S.-H. Liu, and S.-P. Liu, “Alkaline phosphatase activity and its relationship to soil properties in a saline–sodic soil reclaimed by cropping wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) with drip irrigation,” Paddy Water Environ. 12 (2), 309–317 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10333-013-0384-0
The authors are grateful to the Tempus Public Foundation (Government of Hungary) for a doctoral scholarship (Stipendium Hungaricum Scholarship Program, No 2015-SH-500096) and the Higher Education Institutional Excellence Program (NKFIH-1159-6/2019) awarded by the Ministry for Innovation and Technology within the framework of water-related research of Szent István University and to Gábor Mészáros (KITE Pvt. Ltd. Hungary), for permission to use the study sites and the cultivation data for the Hungarian sites. The authors would like to express their appreciation to Dr. A.P. Singh (Head, Department of Environmental Science, Bareilly college, Bareilly, U.P., India), for providing necessary laboratory facilities for Indian site analysis.
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
About this article
Cite this article
Gangwar, R.K., Makádi, M., Demeter, I. et al. Comparing Soil Chemical and Biological Properties of Salt Affected Soils under Different Land Use Practices in Hungary and India. Eurasian Soil Sc. 54, 1007–1018 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229321070048