Eurasian Soil Science

, Volume 44, Issue 12, pp 1343–1351 | Cite as

Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Bafra plain in Turkey

  • R. Kizilkaya
  • O. Dengiz
  • M. A. Ozyazici
  • T. Askin
  • F. Mikayilov
  • E. V. Shein
Soil Chemistry


For analyzing the spatial distribution of the Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and heavy metal (HM) sources on the Bafra deltaic plain (the central Black Sea district of Turkey), 108 soil samples were collected from the 0- to 20-cm layer in an area of about 100 thousand ha. The soil enrichment factor (the ratio between the metal concentration in the soil samples and its content in the earth’s crust (EF)) was calculated to reveal the origin of the heavy metal (HM) pollution (natural or anthropogenic). Kriging interpolation and maps of the soil’s enrichment factors were used for the characterization of the spatial HM distribution. The maximal EF was found for Cd (12.826), while smaller EF values characterized the Pb, Ni, Co, and Cu. In some districts of the studied region, the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were somewhat greater, probably, due to the application of high rates of phosphorus fertilizers and intense soil cultivation. A content exceeding the critical value was recorded for Ni. Probably, this fact was related to the elevated content of this metal in the parent rocks. None of the investigated soils can be referred to the category of polluted ones.


Heavy Metal Kriging Enrichment Factor EURASIAN Soil Science Heavy Metal Accumulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. V. Dobrovol’skii and E. D. Nikitin, Soil Functions in the Biosphere and Ecosystems (Nauka, Moscow, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lead in the Environment, V. V. Dobrovol’skii (Ed.) (Nauka, Moscow, 1987) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zinc and Cadmium in the Environment, V. V. Dobrovol’skii (Ed.) (Nauka, Moscow, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. O. Agbenin, “Lead in a Nigerian Savanna under Long-Term Cultivation,” Sci. Tot. Environ. 286, 1–14 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Albasel and A. Cotteni, “Heavy Metal Contamination Near Major Highways, Industrial and Urban Areas in Belgian Grassland,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 24, 103–109 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. J. Alloway, Heavy Metals in Soils (Blackie, London, UK, 1990).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Baskan and O. Dengiz, “Comparison of Traditional and Geostatistical Methods to Estimate Soil Erodibility Factor,” Arid Land Res. Manage. 22, 29–45 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    T. M. Burgess and R. Webster, “Optimal Interpolation and Isarithmic Mapping of Soil Properties. I. The Semi-Variogram and Punctual Kriging,” J. Soil Sci. 31, 315–331 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Cemek, R. Kizilkaya, “Spatial Variability and Monitoring of Pb Contamination of Farming Soils Affected by Industry,” Environ. Monit. Assess. 117, 357–375 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    T. B. Chen, Y. M. Zheng, M. Lei, et al., “Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soils of Urban Parks in Beijing,” China, Chemosphere 60, 542–551 (2005).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. J. Di, B. B. Trangmar, and R. A. Kemp, “Use of Geostatistics in Designing Sampling Strategies for Soil Survey,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53, 1163–1167 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Goovaerts, Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1997).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    GS+ 7.0. Geostatistics for the Environmental Sciences (Plainwell, Gamma Design Software, 2006).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. E. Isaaks and R. M. Srivastava, An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1989).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. G. Journel and C. H. J. Huijbregts, Mining Geostatistics (Academic, London, 1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. Kabata-Pendias and H. Pendias, Trace Elements in Soils and Plants (CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL, 1984).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Kerry and M. A. Oliver, “Average Variograms to Guide Soil Sampling,” Int. J. Appl. Earth Observ. Geoinform. 5, 307–325 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. K. Kitanidis, Introduction to Geostatistics: Applications to Hydrogeology (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Kizilkaya and T. Askin, “Influence of Cadmium Fractions on Microbiological Properties in Bafra Plain Soils,” Archives Agron. Soil Sci. 48, 263–272 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. Kizilkaya, T. Askin, B. Bayrakli, and M. Saglam, “Microbiological Characteristics of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals,” Eur. J. Soil Biol. 40, 95–102 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Kloke, “Orientierungsdaten fur Tolerierbare Gesamtgehalte Einiger Elemente in Kulturboden,” Mitt. VDLUFA 1, 9–11 (1980).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. V. Mattigod and A. L. Page, Applied Environmental Geochemistry, I. Thornton (Ed.), (Academic Press, UK, London, 1983), pp. 355–394.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Navas and J. Machin, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Soils of Aragon (Northeast Spain): Controlling Factors and Environmental Implications,” Appl. Geochem. 17, 961–973 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I. Öborn, G. Jansson, and L. Johnsson, “A Field Study on the Influence of Soil pH on Trace Element Levels in Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum), Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) and Carrots (Daucus carota),” Water Air Soil Pollut. 85, 835–840 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Pereira and X. Ubeda, “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals Released from Ashes after a Wildfire,” J. Environ. Engin. Landscape Manage. 18, 13–22 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. M. Pfeiffer, J. Freytag, and H. W. Scharpenseel, “Investigation of Heavy Metal and Arsenic Pollution of Soils and Plants in the Urban Area of Manila, Philippines,” Mitt. Dtsch. Bodenkdl. Ges. 66, 1169–1172 (1991).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Puschenreiter and O. Horak, “Influence of Different Soil Parameters on the Transfer Factor Soil to Plant of Cd, Cu and Zn for Wheat and Rye,” Die Bodenkultur 51, 3–10 (2000).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    F. Queriolo, S. Stegen, M. Restovic, et al., “Total Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium Levels in Vegetables Cultivated at the Andean Villages of Northern Chile,” Sci. Tot. Environ. 225, 75–84 (2000).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. L. Rowell, Soil Science: Methods and Applications (Longman, 1996).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Shakery, L. Razikordmahalleh, M. R. Ghasemi, and S. Modabberi, “Distribution of Soil Heavy Metal Contamination in Hashtgerd, Iran,” in Proc. Int. Soil Science Congr. on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Qualit, R. Kizilkaya, C. Gulser, and O. Dengiz Samsun (Eds.) (Ondokuz Mayis Univ., Turkey, 2010), pp. 433–438.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Soil Survey Staff, Soil Taxonomy. A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Survey (USDA Handbook No. 436) (USA, Washington, DC, 1999).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Sposito, The Chemistry of Soils (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1989).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. A. Sutherland, “Bed Sediment-Associated Trace Metals in an Urban Stream, Oahu, Hawaii,” Environ. Geol. 39, 611–627 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. Temmerman, L. Vanongeval, W. Boon, et al., “Heavy Metal Content of Arable Soils in Northern Belgium,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 148, 61–76 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. B. Trangmar, R. S. Yost, and G. Uehara, “Application of Geostatistics to Spatial Studies of Soil Properties,” Adv. Agron. 38, 45–93 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D. Wiersma, B. J. Van Goor, and N. G. van der Veen, “Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Arsenic Concentrations in Crops and Corresponding Soils in The Netherlands,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, pp. 1067–1074 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. C. Wong, X. D. Li, G. Zhang, et al., “Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China,” Environ. Pollut. 119, 33–44 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Y. Yin, C. A. Impellitteri, S. J. You, and H. E. Allen, “The Importance of Organic Matter Distribution and Extract Soil: Solution Ratio on the Desorption of Heavy Metals from Soils,” Sci. Tot. Environ. 287, 107–119.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Y. F. Zhao, S. Xue-Zheng, H. Biao, et al., “Spatial Distribution of Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils of an Industry-Based Peri-Urban Area in Wuxi, China,” Pedosphere 17, 44–51 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Y. M. Zheng, K. Yu, H. T. Wu, et al., “Lead Concentrations of Soils in Beijing Urban Parks and Their Pollution Assessment,” Geogr. Res. 21, 418–424 (2002).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Kizilkaya
    • 1
  • O. Dengiz
    • 1
  • M. A. Ozyazici
    • 2
  • T. Askin
    • 3
  • F. Mikayilov
    • 4
  • E. V. Shein
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey
  2. 2.Research Institute of Soils and Water ResourcesSamsunTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionOrdu UniversityOrduTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Soil Science and Plant NutritionUniversity of SelcukKonyaTurkey
  5. 5.Faculty of Soil ScienceLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations