Collective state of electrons and impurities with a spin
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The problem of states of an electron system interacting with impurities that have a spin of 1/2 is considered. It is shown that in the calculation of the energy of the system, the electron spin-flip processes and the formation of electron–hole–impurity flip spin (hole against the background of electrons with another spin projection) play the major role. Such complexes are accumulated in the system (a sort of Bose condensate of complexes is formed); this reduces the energy of the system, which is a linear function of the initial interaction of an electron with the impurity spin (in contrast, for example, to the result obtained in perturbation theory). The hole-type excitation and the spin excitation have a gap in the spectrum. Small parameters of the problem are the interaction of electrons with impurity spins and the number of impurities. The electron–electron interaction is not taken into account. Impurities are assumed to be distributed at random, and calculations are performed using the known averaging over the positions of impurities.
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- 1.A. A. Abrikosov, Fundamentals of the Theory of Metals (Nauka, Moscow, 1987; North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1988).Google Scholar