Relativistic Metrology of Near-Earth Space–Time and Its Practical Applications
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Results of studies of relativistic effects for the time and frequency shifts for an Earth–satellite system of atomic clocks, and also for moving clocks on the Earth, are presented. In addition to the known solutions, the influence of the irregular rotation of the Earth and of the fields of the Moon and Sun on ground and satellite clocks are included, as well as the influence of a number of other perturbing factors that are difficult to take into account (atmospheric resistance, solar radiation pressure, the albedo of the Earth, etc.). The concept of a near-Earth “gravitational sphere,” characterized by the relativistic index of refraction and the gravitational coefficient for the transformation of frequencies, is introduced for computations of relativistic effects along space radio-wave propagation pathways. Applications for methods of relativisticmetrology are proposed. This paper is based on a presentation made at the conference “Modern Astrometry 2017,” dedicated to the memory of K.V. Kuimov (Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, October 23–25, 2017).
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